A player has the integrated economy and a scientist. The player activates a system and builds a space dock on a planet in an adjacent system. Must the scientist be on the planet where the new space dock is built to get the discount? Or may it be on a planet in the activated system instead?
You can't use Integrated Economy to build Space Docks like that. The technology says "When producing units at your Space Docks, you may now place the new units in any activated, adjacent system that is empty or friendly"
Space Docks are not produced at other Space Docks - they are produced on their own accord, independently of Space Docks. As such, they do not qualify for the tech; to build an SD, you must build it in the activated system as normal. Even placing a new SD in a system that has an SD on another planet already isn't building it "at" that Space Dock, as the other Space Dock has no impact or bearing on it's construction.
This is further supported by the fact that the tech talks about putting GFs and PDS on such planets, but does not discuss Space Docks.