Alfonso X (23 November 1221 – 4 April 1284), called the Wise (Spanish: el Sabio), was the King of Castile, León and Galicia from 30 May 1252 until his death.
The Libro de los Juegos, ("Book of games"), or Libro de acedrex, dados e tablas, ("Book of chess, dice and tables", in Old Spanish) was commissioned by him and completed in his scriptorium in Toledo in 1283.
The book consists of ninety-seven leaves of parchment, many with color illustrations,and contains 150 miniatures. The text is a treatise that addresses the playing of three games:
a game of skill, or chess;
a game of chance, or dice;
and a third game, backgammon, which combines elements of both skill and chance.
The book contains the earliest known description of some of these games.
It is one of the most important documents for researching the history of board games. The only known original is held in the library of the monastery of San Lorenzo del Escorial near Madrid in Spain.
Source: Wikipedia, "Alfonso X of Castile," available under the CC-BY-SA License.
Source: Wikipedia, "Libro de los juegos," available under the CC-BY-SA License.