François Édouard Anatole Lucas (April 4, 1842 in Amiens – October 3, 1891) was a French mathematician. Lucas is known for his study of the Fibonacci sequence. The related Lucas sequence is named after him. He gave a formula for finding the nth term of the Fibonacci sequence.
Lucas was educated at the École Normale Supérieure. He worked in the Paris observatory and later became a professor of mathematics in Paris. In the meantime he served in the army.
Lucas was also interested in recreational mathematics; He found an elegant binary solution to the Baguenaudier puzzle. He also more notably invented the Tower of Hanoi puzzle, which he marketed under the nickname N. Claus de Siam, an anagram of Lucas d'Amiens.
Lucas died in unusual circumstances. At the banquet of the annual congress of the Association française pour l'avancement des sciences a waiter dropped some crockery and a piece of broken plate cut Lucas on the cheek. He died a few days later of a severe skin inflammation probably caused by septicemia. Lucas was only 49 years old when he died.