This Day - EVERY DAY - in History (a 366-Item Geeklist, Eventually)
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I'm a sucker for "this day in history" things. Not just the big events, but the little ones, too, like the invention of the whatchamacallit, or the birth of Prince Skepticus of Erewhon.

So I had the probably-delusional idea that a geeklist, to proceed day-by-day, eventually hitting 366 items (too bad 2011 isn't a leap-year; but in order not to ignore 1/1461st of history, I'll cover Feb 29, too), might be of interest to... well, at least to ME.

So here goes. I have gone back to January 1 since the year is still young, to give this list a running start. I won't necessarily add every day on the actual day, but I won't get AHEAD of the calendar, I can promise you that! I disabled adding items, but allowed comments, so if somebody has an interesting tidbit about a given date, it can be added as a comment.

No doubt this list won't remain at the top of Geeklist hotness for an entire year, so you should subscribe if you want to know how it comes out.

Note #1: If I go back to a past entry to add something I missed the first time, additions will be italicized.

Note #2: The historical event linked to the game will be in bold...

Note #3: Sometimes, I will shorten things a little bit, rather than type a long dissertation about a particular event.

Navigating this geeklist:

Page 1 January 1st
Page 2 January 26th
Page 3 February 20th
Page 4 March 16th
Page 5 April 10th
Page 6 May 5th
Page 7 May 30th
Page 8 June 24th
Page 9 July 19th
Page 10 August 13th
Page 11 September 7th
Page 12 October 2nd
Page 13 October 27th
Page 14 November 21st
Page 15 December 16th
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201. Board Game: Hispania [Average Rating:6.71 Overall Rank:3554]
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JULY 19

711 (or maybe 712): Muslim Arabs and Berbers under Ṭāriq ibn Ziyad defeat the Visigoths at Battle of Guadalete, early days in the Umayyad conquest of Hispania (Spain/Portugal)

1553: Lady Jane Grey deposed nine days after claiming the crown as Queen of England by her cousin (and the half-sister of the late King Edward), soon-to-be-Queen Mary

1832: British Medical Association founded

1834: Edgar Degas, a famed impressionist painter, born in Paris

1843: The steamship SS Great Britain, built by Isambard Kingdom Brunel, is launched in Bristol, England – first all-metal sea-going ship with a single screw propeller, and at the time the largest ship afloat

1848: First women’s rights convention in the United States begins in Seneca Falls, New York

1864: Qing Dynasty defeats the Taiping Heavenly Kingdom at the Third Battle of Nanking, last major engagement of the Taiping Rebellion

1870: France, upset about a mooted plan to place a Hohenzollern on the throne of Spain, and goaded by Bismarck’s leak of the Ems Telegram, declares war on Prussia

1898: Emile Zola the novelist flees France to escape imprisonment for “libeling” the French army in his blistering newspaper letter, "J’Accuse", which criticized the army’s role in the Dreyfus Affair

1900: First line of the Paris Métro, Porte Maillot–Porte de Vincennes, inaugurated during the Paris World’s Fair

1942: German Admiral Dönitz orders u-boats to abandon the US Atlantic coast, since the US had finally organized an effective convoy system (Battle of the Atlantic, WW2)

1947: Brian May, astrophysicist and university chancellor, born in London; oh yeah, he also played guitar for Queen

1947: Aung San, Burmese nationalist and revolutionary, assassinated in Rangoon; his daughter is Nobel Peace laureate and opposition leader Aung San Suu Kyi

1979: Frente Sandinista de Liberación Nacional rebel army enters the Nicaraguan capital, Managua
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202. Board Game: Liftoff! [Average Rating:6.83 Overall Rank:2993]
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JULY 20

1374: Petrarch, poet, scholar, humanist, born in Arezzo, Tuscany

1402: Timur (Tamurlame) defeats the Ottomans at Battle of Ankara

1807: Nicéphore Niépce receives patent from Napoleon for world’s first internal combustion engine

1810: Colombia declares independence

1822: Gregor Mendel, a monk who studied peas and became the father of genetics, born in Heinzendorf bei Odrau, Austrian Empire (modern Czech Republic)

1866: Austrian fleet defeats Italians at Battle of Lissa – the first major naval battle involving ironclads at sea and one of the last where ramming was employed as a tactic (Austro-Prussian War)

1871: British Colombia joins the Canadian federation as a province

1873: Alberto Santos-Dumont born in Minas Gerais, Brazil; he was an aviation pioneer and designed, built and flew the one of the first practical dirigibles and made the first public flight on an airplane in Europe

1881: Sitting Bull surrenders

1885: Paying players legalized for soccer in Britain by Football Association

1919: Sir Edmund Hillary, mountaineer, born in Auckland, New Zealand

1944: Hitler injured by a bomb in a failed assassination attempt in Rastenburg, Germany

1947: Carlos Santana, guitarist, born in Autlan de Navarro, Jalisco, Mexico

1948: US institutes peacetime military conscription for first time

1951: King Abdullah of Jordan assassinated in East Jerusalem

1951: Friedrich Wilhelm Victor August Ernst of the House of Hohenzollern dies; Wilhelm was the last Crown Prince of the Kingdom of Prussia and the German Empire (not the last Hohenzollern, though)

1960: Sirimavo Bandaranaike wins elections in Ceylon (now Sri Lanka) and the next day becomes the world’s first elected female prime minister

1969: Neil Armstrong says from the surface of the moon, “That’s one small step for man, one giant leap for mankind”; Apollo 11 landed on the moon earlier that day

1973: Martial arts expert and actor Bruce Lee dies aged 32

1974: Turkish forces land on Cyprus a few days after a Greek-backed coup there

1976: Viking 1 lands on Mars

1999: Falun Gong banned in China
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203. Board Game: Age of Steam Expansion: Siberia [Average Rating:6.44 Unranked] [Average Rating:6.44 Unranked]
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JULY 21

356 BC: Temple of Artemis v2.0 destroyed by arson in Ephesus (modern Selçuk, Turkey)

365: Tsunami devastates Alexandria, Egypt and kills a reported 50,000

1568: Duke of Alba defeats Louis of Nassau at Battle of Jemmingen (Netherlands) in the Eighty-Years War

1831: Leopold Georg Christian Friedrich, Prince of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld, installed as Leopold I, King of the Belgians

1861: Beauregard’s rebel army routs McDowell’s federal army at First Battle of Bull Run at Manassas, Virginia – first major battle of the American Civil War, and a Colonel Jackson of Virginia (on the Confederate side) earns a nickname of “Stonewall”

1873: Jesse James and the James-Younger gang pull off their first train robbery in Adair, Iowa

1904: Trans-Siberian Railroad completed after 13 years of work

1904: Louis Rigolly of France is first person to drive at 100 mph (161 kph), in Ostend, Belgium

1925: Scopes Monkey Trial ends with a conviction in Tennessee (later overturned)

1944: Stauffenberg and others executed for their role in the failed plot on Hitler’s life

1948: Gary Trudeau, cartoonist (Doonesbury), born in New York City

1959: Pumpsie Green debuts for the Boston Red Sox, the first black player for the Red Sox, the last major league team to integrate (over 12 years after the Dodgers)

1960: West Germany passes a law effectively blocking any hostile takeover of Volkswagen

1970: Egypt’s Aswan High Dam on the Nile River completed after 18 years of work

1972: Bloody Friday in Belfast, Northern Ireland – Provisional Irish Republican Army sets off 22 bombs in 80 minutes (nine killed)

1976: British ambassador to Republic of Ireland assassinated by Provisional IRA in Dublin

1977: War breaks out between Libya and Egypt; lasts four days before Algeria arranges a cease-fire
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204. Board Game: Cops 'n' Robbers [Average Rating:5.19 Unranked]
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JULY 22

1298: English king Edward I defeats William Wallace in Battle of Falkirk

1633: Trijntje Keever, allegedly at nine Amsterdam feet (2.54m, or 8'4"), the tallest woman ever, dies in Ter Veen, Netherlands

1793: Alexander Mackenzie reaches the Pacific, completing his transcontinental crossing of Canada

1796: Cleveland (Ohio) founded by Connecticut surveyors under Gen. Moses Cleaveland

1844: William Archibald Spooner, an Oxford professor, born in London; "spoonerisms" such as "a blushing crow" (should be "crushing blow") are named for him

1864: Union under Sherman defeats Confederates under Hood at Battle of Atlanta (though Atlanta wouldn't fall until September)

1882: Edward Hopper, artist, born in Nyack, New York

1894: Jules-Albert de Dion wins the first motorized race, between Paris and Rouen

1933: Wiley Post completes first solo flight around the world in seven days 19 hours (approx)

1934: John Dillinger, notorious bank robber and Public Enemy #1, killed by federal agents in Chicago

1937: US Senate rejects President Roosevelt's proposal to add more justices to the Supreme Court

1940: Jeopardy! host Alex Trebek born in Sudbury, Ontario, Canada

1941: George Clinton, musician and master of funk (Parliament, Funkadelic), born in Kannapolis, North Carolina

1942: Nazi Germany begins the systematic deportation of Jews from the Warsaw Ghetto to death camps

1946: King David Hotel Bombing in British-ruled mandate of Palestine kills 91 at the hotel where British military and mandate government officials worked, attack carried out by a right-wing Zionist group, Irgun

1946: Johnson Toribiong, president of Palau, born in Airai, Palau

1977: With Mao Zedong safely dead, Deng Xiaoping returns to power in China

1992: Wayne McLaren, an actor and rodeo rider who was the Marlborough Man in cigarette advertisements, dies of lung cancer aged 51
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205. Board Game: Save the Whales [Average Rating:6.46 Unranked]
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JULY 23

645: Yazid I, the second Umayyad Caliph, born

1856: Bal Gangadhar Tilak, Sanskrit scholar, social reformer, and independence fighter, born in Ratnagiri, Maharashtra, British India

1877: First telephone/telegraph line to Hawaii completed

1881: The world’s oldest international sports federation, Fédération Internationale de Gymnastique, founded in Liege, Belgium

1892: Haile Selassie, Emperor of Ethiopia, born in Ejersa Goro, Ethiopia

1903: Ford Motor Company sells its first car, a Ford Model A, in Detroit

1904: As legend goes, the ice cream cone is invented at the Louisiana Purchase Exposition in St Louis, Missouri

1914: Austria-Hungary issues an ultimatum to Serbia so over the top in its demands that nobody expects the Serb government will accept it

1920: Amália Rodrigues, "Rainha do Fado" ("Queen of Fado"), born in Lisbon; she was probably the most influential person in popularizing Portugal’s fado music around the world

1952: Military coup in Egypt led by Gamal Nasser overthrows King Farouk

1952: The European Coal and Steel Community, precursor to the European Community and European Union, comes into being

1961: The Sandinista National Liberation Front (Frente Sandinista de Liberación Nacional), founded in Nicaragua

1965: Slash, guitarist for Guns N’ Roses, born in London

1970: Qaboos bin Said Al Said overthrows his father to become Sultan of Oman

1982: International Whaling Commission decides to end commercial whaling by 1986

1989: Daniel Radcliffe, who played Harry whats-his-name in some movie series, born in London
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206. Board Game: Libertadores 1810-1824 [Average Rating:5.69 Unranked]
 
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JULY 24

1567: Mary Queen of Scots, imprisoned, forced to abdicate

1568: Don Carlos, heir to Philip II of Spain, dies aged 23; mentally instable, his father had him locked up in January 1568

1701: Antoine Laumet de La Mothe, sieur de Cadillac, found Fort Pontchartrain du Détroit, on the site of modern Detroit

1783: Simón Bolívar, military and political leader and El Libertador, born in Caracas, Venezuela

1802: Alexandre Dumas, author of novels like The Count of Monte Cristo and The Three Musketeers, born in Villers-Cotterêts, France

1823: Chile abolishes slavery

1847: 148 Mormon settlers led by Brigham Young arrive in the Salt Lake Valley in modern Utah

1911: Hiram Bingham "discovers" Machu Picchu, the lost city of the Incas (though the local peasants knew about it)

1920: Bella Abzug, politician and early leader of the Women's Movement in the US, born in New York City

1923: Treaty of Lausanne signed, annulling the Treaty of Sèvres; Lausanne establishes the borders of modern Turkey and recognizes the Republic of Turkey as the successor state to the Ottoman Empire

1938: Nescafé instant coffee introduced in Switzerland by the Nestlé company

1943: Operation Gomorrah begins, the bombing of Hamburg by day (Americans) and night (British, Canadians)

1959: US VP Nixon and Soviet leader Khruschev have their famous "kitchen debate" about communism and capitalism, in a model kitchen at an American Exposition in Moscow

1967: On an official visit to Canada, French president Charles de Gaulle says to a throng in Montreal "Vive le Québec libre!"; the Canadian government is Not Amused

1969: Apollo 11 splashes down safely in the Pacific

1983: George Brett's game-winning home run for the Kansas City Royals against the New York Yankees is nullified for having pine tar too far up the bat; Brett is Not Amused

1998: Bindi Irwin, child celebrity conservationist (and daughter of Steve Irwin), born in Buderim, Queensland, Australia

2005: Lance Armstrong wins his seventh consecutive Tour de France
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207. Board Game: Puerto Rico [Average Rating:8.15 Overall Rank:5]
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JULY 25

306: Constantine the Great proclaimed Roman Emperor upon the death of his father Constantius

1139: Afonso I takes the title King of the Portuguese after defeating Almoravid Moors at the Battle of Ourique

1261: Alexios Strategopoulos takes Constantinople from the Latin Empire (Crusaders), re-establishing the Byzantine Empire

1538: Guayaquil (Ecuador) founded by Francisco de Orellana

1567: Caracas founded by Don Diego de Losada

1593: France’s Henri IV publicly converts from Protestantism to Roman Catholicism; indeed, Paris is worth a mass (though the record on whether Henri IV actually said that is not clear)

1603: James VI of Scotland crowned as James I of England, England and Scotland now in personal (not political) union

1792: Duke of Brunswick, commanding an Austro-Prussian army, threatens Parisians if they harm the captive French royal family; an clumsy attempt at intimidation instead helped lead to further radicalization of the revolution

1799: Bonaparte defeats the Ottomans at Aboukir (Egypt)

1898: US invades Puerto Rico during the Spanish-American War

1917: Income tax introduced in Canada

1934: In a failed coup, Nazis assassinate Austrian chancellor Engelbert Dollfuss

1943: Mussolini voted out of office by Italy’s Grand Council, and arrested

1945: US president Harry Truman hints to Soviet leader Josef Stalin about the atomic bomb during a conversation (at Potsdam, Germany) in which Stalin pledged the Soviets would join the war against Japan (WW2)

1965: Bob Dylan surprises the audience when he plays an electric guitar at the Newport Folk Festival

1969: US president Richard Nixon announces “Nixon Doctrine”, that US allies in Asia (such as South Vietnam…) have to take care of their own military defense

1975: A Chorus Line opens on Broadway

1978: Louise Brown, the first “test-tube baby”, born in Manchester, England

1984: Soviet cosmonaut Svetlana Savitskaya becomes the first woman to do a spacewalk

1985: Rock Hudson the actor announces he has AIDS – first big-name celebrity to publicly admit to having that condition; Hudson dies a few weeks later

1993: Israel launches week-long attack against Hezbollah in southern Lebanon

1994: Israeli prime minister Yitzhak Rabin and Jordanian king Hussein sign the Washington Accord, ending the state of war between their two countries

2007: Pratibha Patil sworn in, India’s first woman president
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208. Board Game: Post Office Game [Average Rating:0.00 Unranked]
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JULY 26

657: Battle of Siffin begins in Syria, the major engagement in the First Fitna, or first Muslim civil war, between forces of the Caliph, Ali, and the governor of Syria, Muawiyah I

1581: In the Act of Abjuration, eight northern provinces of the Low Countries (Netherlands) declare independence from Spain

1745: First recorded women’s cricket match at Guildford, England

1758: The fortress of Louisbourg surrenders to the British (Seven Years War/French and Indian War)

1775: What is now the US postal system established by Continental Congress; Benjamin Franklin is appointed Postmaster General

1856: George Bernard Shaw, writer, born in Dublin

1861: George McClellan assumes command of the Army of the Potomac (American Civil War)

1882: Republic of Stellaland founded in southern Africa by Boers (don't feel bad, I never heard of it, either)

1894: Aldous Huxley (Brave New World) born in Godalming, England

1941: US freezes Japanese assets because of Japan’s occupation of French Indochina (WW2)

1943: Mick Jagger (The Rolling Stones) born in Dartford, England

1945: After an electoral defeat, Winston Churchill resigns as prime minister of Britain

1947: US president Harry Truman signs National Security Act, merges the Department of War and Department of the Navy into the Department of Defense; establishes the National Security Council; and establishes the Central Intelligence Agency

1948: President Truman signs an order desegregating the US military

1949: Thaksin Shinawatra, tycoon and former prime minister of Thailand, born in Chiang Mai, Thailand

1953: Cuban Revolution begins with an unsuccessful attack on the Moncada Barracks

1956: Egypt nationalizes the Suez Canal, which was largely under British and French control
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209. RPG Item: Dungeons & Dragons (Woodgrain Box & White Box Sets) [Average Rating:7.76 Overall Rank:249]
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JULY 27

1452: Ludovico Sforza, Duke of Milan and the person who commission The Last Supper by Leonardo, born in Vigevano, Italy

1549: Jesuit priest Francis Xavier reaches Japan

1586: Sir Walter Raleigh brings the first tobacco from Virginia to England

1694: Bank of England receives a royal charter

1789: US Congress establishes the State Department (originally, the Department of Foreign Affairs), the first federal agency

1794: Maximilien Robespierre, revolutionary leader and architect of the Reign of Terror, ousted and arrested by the National Convention (French Revolution)

1866: First permanent transatlantic telegraph cable laid between Newfoundland and Ireland

1880: Afghans defeat British at Battle of Maiwand (Second Afghan War)

1921: Insulin isolated by researchers at Toronto University

1938: Gary Gygax, co-creator of Dungeons & Dragons, father of roleplaying, born in Chicago

1940: Bugs Bunny debuts in A Wild Hare

1943: Soviet leader Josef Stalin issues order 227, reading in part “Panic makers and cowards must be liquidated on the spot. Not one step backward without orders from higher headquarters! Commanders… who abandon a position without an order from higher headquarters are traitors to the Fatherland”; how's that for inspiration? (WW2)

1949: First flight of the de Havilland Comet, the first commercial jet

1953: Armistice ends the shooting phase of the Korean War

1955: Allied occupation of Austria formally ends

1974: House Judiciary Committee passes the first of three articles of impeachment against US president Richard Nixon

1976: Former Japanese prime minister and “shadow shogun” Kakuei Tanaka arrested in connection with Lockheed bribery scandal

1990: Last Citroen 2CV automobile rolls off the line in Mangualde, Portugal; since 1948, over 5 million produced
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210. Board Game: Peter Rabbit's Race Game [Average Rating:5.00 Unranked]
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JULY 28

450: Roman emperor Theodosius II dies in a riding accident

1794: Robespierre guillotined (French Revolution)

1866: Congress authorizes use of the metric system in the United States; funny, doesn't seem to have caught on

1866: Beatrix Potter, conservationist and author (The Tale of Peter Rabbit and many other books), born in London

1868: 14th Amendment to US constitution takes effect

1896: Miami (Florida) incorporated

1907: Earl Tupper, inventor of Tupperware, born in Berlin, New Hampshire

1914: Austria-Hungary declares war on Serbia and nudges Europe towards a full-scale conflagration

1932: US president Herbert Hoover orders US Army to evict the "Bonus Army" (WW1 veterans looking for early payment of bonuses during the Depression) from Washington

1942: Marty Brennaman, long-time voice of the Cincinnati Reds, born in Portsmouth, Virginia

1942: Santiago Calatrava, architect, born in Valencia, Spain

1943: Heavy British bombing (2326 tons of bombs dropped in 43 minutes) creates a firestorm in Hamburg, estimated 42,000 die (WW2)

1952: Vajiralongkorn, crown prince of Thailand, born in Bangkok

1954: Hugo Chavez, president of Venezuela, born in Sabaneta, Venezuela

1965: US president Lyndon Johnson announces expansion of troops in Vietnam from 75,000 to 125,000

1972: Elizabeth Berkley, actress and star of the famously bad movie Showgirls, born in Farmington Hills, Michigan

1976: Approximately 8.0 earthquake flattens Tangshan, China, killing an estimated 242,000

1977: Trans-Alaska pipelin begins full operation; first oil from Prudhoe Bay arrives in Valdez

1978: National Lampoon's Animal House opens in American theaters

1993: Andorra joins the United Nations

2001: Ian Thorpe (Australia) becomes first to win six gold medals at World Championships (swimming)

2005: Irish Republican Army announces it will end its violence and will disarm
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211. Board Game: Diplomacy [Average Rating:7.09 Overall Rank:357]
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JULY 29

238: Praetorian Guard capture and execute the Roman co-emperors, Pupienus and Balbinus

904: Saracen pirates sack Thessalonica

1030: Saint Olaf II, King of Norway, killed in Battle of Stiklestad

1588: English defeat Spanish Armada at Battle of Gravelines

1776: Two Franciscan priests, Silvestre de Escalante and Francisco Dominguez, leave Santa Fe, New Mexico on an expedition – the first Europeans to extensively explore the Great Basin country in modern Utah

1805: Alexis de Tocqueville, political scientist and historian (author of Democracy in America), born in Paris

1848: Young Irelanders rebel in Battle of Ballingarry (County Tipperary), fleeing when police reinforcements arrive

1890: Vincent Van Gogh shoots and kills himself

1900: Italy’s king Umberto I assassinated in Monza by an anarchist

1909: General Motors buys Cadillac

1914: Cousins Nicky and Willy – better known as Tsar Nicholas II and Kaiser Wilhelm II – begin an exchange of telegrams trying to avert conflict between Germany and Russia, following Austria-Hungary’s declaration of war on Serbia; meanwhile Russia mobilizes

1921: Adolph Hitler becomes leader of the National Socialist German Workers Party (Nazis) in Germany

1953: Ken Burns, documentary director and producer, born in Brooklyn, New York

1953: Geddy Lee, lead singer for Canadian rock band Rush, born in North York, Ontario (real name: Gary Lee Weinrib)

1958: US president Eisenhower signs legislation creating NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Agency)

1972: Wil Wheaton, actor (Star Trek: The Next Generation, Stand By Me), writer, D&D player and boardgame geek, born in Burbank, California

1974: Cass Elliott, singer and member of The Mamas & the Papas, dies in London aged 32; of a heart attack, not a ham sandwich
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212. Board Game: World Cup Tournament Football [Average Rating:6.36 Overall Rank:3745]
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JULY 30

762: Baghdad commissioned by the caliph, Al Mansur

1419: First Defenestration of Prague – a crowd of Hussites kill seven city council members by throwing them out the window (the ones not killed by the fall were killed by the mob)

1619: House of Burgesses convenes in Jamestown, Virginia – first meeting of an elected legislative assembly in (European) North America

1729: Baltimore (Maryland) founded

1792: “La Marseillaise” – now the national anthem of France – first sung in Paris

1818: Emily Brontë (Wuthering Heights) born in Thornton, England

1857: Thorstein Veblen, an economist who wrote The Theory of the American Leisure Class and described the concept of “conspicuous consumption”, born in Cato, Wisconsin

1863: Henry Ford, industrialist, born in Dearborn, Michigan

1864: Battle of the Crater – the explosion is massive and creates a great big hole in Confederate defenses at Petersburg, but Union forces can’t follow thru quickly enough and the attack goes nowhere (American Civil War)

1889: Vladimir Zworykin, engineer and television pioneer, born in Murom, Russia

1898: Corn Flakes invented by William Kellogg

1898: First automobile advertisement in an American magazine appears in Scientific American for the Winton Motor Company

1915: Battle of Hooge, and the Germans use their new weapon, the flamethrower (WW1)

1930: Host Uruguay defeats Argentina 4-2 to win the first World Cup

1945: Japanese sub I-58 torpedoes and sinks the American cruiser Indianapolis, which had just delivered key components of the atomic bomb to the Pacific island of Tinian (WW2)

1962: Trans-Canada Highway officially opened

1964: Jürgen Klinsmann, star footballer for the German national team (including the 1990 World Cup winning team) and several club teams in Germany, England, and Italy, manager of the 2006 Germany World Cup squad, and the just-named manager of the US national team, born in Göppingen, Baden-Wurttemberg, Germany

1965: President Lyndon Johnson signs the law creating Medicare

1966: At Wembley, England defeats West Germany 4-2 in extra time to win the World Cup; Geoff Hurst scores the first and so far only hat trick in a World Cup final, and this is the first World Cup final to be televised

1966: “Wild Thing” by the Troggs hits #1 in the US

1974: Watergate scandal heats up – president Richard Nixon releases tapes, and House approves a third article of impeachment

1975: Jimmy Hoffa, former Teamsters president, disappears in a suburb of Detroit and hasn’t been seen since

1978: Okinawa switches from driving on the right hand side of the road to driving on the left (it had only driven on the right in the first because it was occupied and ruled by the United States from 1945 to 1972, when it reverted to Japan)

1997: Bao Dai, former emperor of Vietnam and 13th and last 13th and last ruler of the Nguyen dynasty, dies in exile in Paris aged 83

2006: Long-running British music television show Top of the Pops airs for the last time on BBC2
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213. Board Game: Air Baron [Average Rating:6.40 Overall Rank:2022]
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Minnesota
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JULY 31

781: Oldest recorded eruption of Mt Fuji in Japan (traditional date: July 6)

1396: Philip the Good, Duke of Burgundy, born in Dijon, Burgundy (now in France)l; his reign saw Burgundy's peak of prosperity and power

1556: Ignatius of Loyola, knight, Catholic priest and founder of the Order of Jesus (Jesuits), dies in Rome

1667: Treaty of Breda signed ending Second Anglo-Dutch War

1715: Hurricane strikes the Spanish treasure fleet off the coast of Florida, sinking ten ships and killing almost 1000 people; ships recovered 250 years later

1856: City of Christchurch, New Zealand, chartered

1865: First narrow gauge mainline railway in the world opens in Grandchester, Queensland, Australia

1914: New York Stock Exchange closes due threat of war in Europe

1914: Germany warns Russia to stop mobilizing or else

1919: German national assembly adopts Weimar Constitution

1919: Primo Levi, chemist, concentration camp survivor, and author, born in Turin, Italy

1923: Ahmet Ertegun, influential music executive with Atlantic Records, born in Istanbul, Turkey

1931: Experimental television station now known as WCBS begins broadcasting in New York City

1938: Archaeologists discover engraved gold and silver plates from King Darius in Persepolis (Iran)

1941: Hermann Goering, on instructions from Hitler, orders SS General Reinhard Heydrich: "submit to me as soon as possible a general plan of the administrative material and financial measures necessary for carrying out the desired final solution of the Jewish question"

1948: New York International Airport (later renamed John F. Kennedy International Airport) dedicated

1951: Japan Airlines (JAL) established


1959: Basque separatist terrorist organization Euskadi Ta Askatasuna (ETA) founded

1965: J.K. Rowling (Harry Potter series) born in Bristol, England

1970: Black Tot Day - the Royal Navy issues sailors the last daily rum ration

1971: Astronaut Dave Scott is first person to drive on the moon

1981: Baseball strike ends after six weeks

1981: Panamanian dictator, General Omar Torrijos, dies in a plane crash

2003: Felix Baumgartner of Austria becomes first man to cross the English Channel by unpowered flight (he jumped from a plane over Dover and glided across the Channel wearing a special suit with carbon-fibre wings across his back)

2008: Scientists report that Phoenix spacecraft has confirmed there is frozen water on Mars
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214. Board Game: Paths of Glory [Average Rating:8.03 Overall Rank:46]
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Minnesota
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AUGUST 1

30 BC: Octavian captures Alexandria, Egypt; Mark Antony commits suicide the day after losing a battle to Octavian

10 BC: Claudius, an early Roman emperor, born in Lugdunum, Gaul

1291: Federal Charter of 1291 founds the Old Swiss Confederacy, which lasts until undone by Napoleon in 1798

1498: Columbus lands in modern Venezuela and plants the Spanish flag, first landing of Europeans in South America

1744: Jean-Baptiste Lamarck, biologist and proponent of evolution, born in Bazentin, France

1759: Duke of Brunswick commands British and Hanover forces (with some other German allies) to defeat French at Battle of Minden (Seven Years War)

1774: Joseph Priestly discovers "dephlogisticated air", better known now as oxygen

1798: Battle of the Nile (aka, Battle of Aboukir Bay) begins in Alexandria when Horatio Nelson commences a night action; the decisive British victory eventually forces Napoleon to abandon his Egyptian expedition

1819: Herman Melville, author of Moby-Dick, born in New York City

1834: Slavery abolished in the British Empire as Slavery Abolition Act of 1833 comes into force

1893: Perky and Ford patent Shredded Wheat

1894: First Sino-Japanese War begins over their dispute over Korea

1905: Helen Hogg (nee Sawyer), astronomer, newspaper astronomy columnist, and first woman president of Royal Canadian Institute, born in Lowell, Massachusetts

1914: Germany declares war on Russia (France orders a general mobilization); The Great War (WW1) is on; Italy (a treaty ally of Germany and Austria-Hungary) declares neutrality, but German and Ottomans conclude a secret alliance

1917: Frank Little, labor organizer who had been in town for about a month to help organize copper miners and lead a strike against Anaconda Copper Company, is dragged from his hotel room and lynched in Butte, Montana, with the words "First and last warning" pinned to his chest

1927: Nanchang Uprising - first significant military clash between Chinese Nationalists (Kuomintang) and Communists

1936: The Berlin Olympics open with 100,000 cheering Hitler and featuring songs like "Deutschland Ueber Alles" and the Nazi anthem "Horst-Wessel Song"

1942: Jerry Garcia (The Grateful Dead) born in San Francisco

1943: PT 109 rammed by a Japanese destroyer and sunk in the Solomon Islands; two killed, 12 survivors include Lt. John F. Kennedy (WW2)

1944: Warsaw Uprising by Poles against the German occupiers begins as Soviets approach Warsaw; Soviets do nothing (less than nothing - they rejected British requests to use Soviet bases to airlift supplies in to the Poles) and wait while the Nazis crush the revolt

1957: The Bridgers and Paxton Office Building in Albuquerque, New Mexico, becomes the first commercial building to be heated by solar energy

1957: US and Canada form NORAD (North American Air Defense Command)

1960: Islamabad becomes capital of Pakistan (previously Karachi)

1961: Six Flags Over Texas amusement park opens in Arlington, Texas

1966: Chinese Communist Party decides purges of intellectuals is official policy as the Cultural Revolution gathers steam

1971: Flooding of the Red River in North Vietnam (heavy rains overwhelm the dyke system) kills an estimated 100,000

1981: MTV goes on the air just after midnight with the words “Ladies and gentlemen, rock and roll"; first video is by the Buggles, "Video Killed the Radio Star"

1984: Lindow Man, who died maybe between 2 BC and 119 CE, discovered in Cheshire, England
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215. Board Game: Ancients [Average Rating:6.73 Overall Rank:3209]
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Twin Cities
Minnesota
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AUGUST 2

338 BC: Philip II of Macedon (father of Alexander the Great) defeat a Greek alliance (Athens, Thebes, others) at Battle of Chaeronea, establishing Macedonian hegemony in Greece

216 BC: Hannibal's Carthaginian army routs a numerically superior Roman army at Battle of Cannae


1610: Henry Hudson enters Hudson Bay, thinking he has discovered the Northwest Passage

1754: Pierre L'Enfant, engineer and designer of the city of Washington DC, born in Anet, France

1776: By some accounts, signing of Declaration of Independence begins

1790: First US Census taken

1830: Faced with revolution, Charles X of France abdicates

1865: CSS Shenandoah gets the news from an English ship in the south Pacific that the Civil War is over

1876: Wild Bill Hickok shot and killed while playing poker in Deadwood, South Dakota; he had his back to the door...

1880: British Parliament adopts Greenwich Mean Time

1917: Sailors on the German battleship Prinzregent Luitpold mutiny, demanding an end to the war (WW1)

1918: First general strike in Canada takes place in Vancouver

1923: US president Warren Harding dies of a stroke in San Francisco

1923: Shimon Peres, current president of Israel and former prime minister, born in Wiszniew, Poland (now in Belarus)

1932: Peter O'Toole, actor (Lawrence of Arabia), born in either Connemara, Ireland, or Leeds, England (O'Toole himself says he doesn't know where or exactly when he was born, so take it up with him)

1934: German president Paul von Hindenburg dies, and Hitler (the chancellor) assumes the title of Fuhrer

1937: US Congress passes Marihuana (sic) Tax Act of 1937, taxing cannabis but not making its possession or sale illegal

1939: Albert Einstein writes to president Franklin Roosevelt urging the US research the atomic bomb; Einstein feared Nazi Germany might be ahead on atomic research

1942: Isabel Allende, Chilean novelist, born in Lima, Peru

1964: North Vietnamese torpedo boats fire on US destroyer Maddox in the Gulf of Tonkin; this and an alleged August 4 skirmish led to the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution which gave US president Lyndon Johnson authority to assist southeast Asian countries facing communist aggression

1990: Iraq invades Kuwait
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216. Board Game: Columbus [Average Rating:5.76 Overall Rank:7897]
Wendell
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Twin Cities
Minnesota
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AUGUST 3

435: Nestorius, former Archbishop of Constantinople and founder of Nestorianism, exiled by the Roman emperor to a monastery in Egypt

1492: Christopher Columbus sets sail from Palos, Spain, with the Nina, Pinta, and Santa Maria, hoping to reach China and India and the Spice Islands

1778: Milan's famed La Scala opera house opens, first performance is Antonio Salieri's "Europa riconosciuta"

1811: Elisha Otis, who invented an elevator safety device, born in Halifax, Vermont

1852: Harvard beats Yale in first Boat Race between the two; the oldest intercollegiate athletic competition in the US

1856: Alfred Deakin, second prime minister of Australia, born in Melbourne, Victoria

1900: Firestone Tire and Rubber Company founded in Akron, Ohio

1914: Germany and France declare war on the other, and British Foreign Secretary Edward Grey remarks, "The lamps are going out all over Europe; we shall not see them lit again in our lifetime" (WW1)

1936: Jesse Owens wins the first of four gold medals at the Berlin Olympics

1946: Santa Claus Land (now Holiday World) opens in Santa Claus, Indiana, the world's first themed amusement park

1949: Two rival leagues merge to form National Basketball Association (NBA)

1951: Marcel Dionne, hockey hall of famer, born in Drummondville, Quebec

1963: James Hetfield, vocalist for Metallica, born in Downey, California

1966: Lenny Bruce, controversial comedian, found dead at his Hollywood Hills home

2005: Military coup in Mauritania
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217. Board Game: Jazz King [Average Rating:8.00 Unranked]
Wendell
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Minnesota
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AUGUST 4

1306: Wenceslaus III, king of Hungary and Bohemia and claimant to the Polish throne, dies under mysterious circumstances aged 16

1532: Kingdom of France annexes Duchy of Brittany

1693: Dom Perignon invents champagne, according to probably-wrong legend

1704: English and Dutch fleet capture Gibraltar (War of the Spanish Succession)

1789: France's National Constituent Assembly votes to end feudalism

1790: The US Revenue Cutter Service is enacted - now known as the Coast Guard

1854: Japanese ships ordered to fly the Hinomaru (Rising Sun, current flag of Japan) to identify them

1892: In Falls Church, Massachusetts, somebody - Lizzie Borden? - killed Andrew and Abby Borden with a hatchet

1901: Louis Armstrong, jazz trumpeter and vocalist, born in New Orleans

1914: Britain declares war on Germany, at least in part for violating Belgian neutrality; US declares neutrality

1916: Liberia declares war on Germany (WW1)

1944: Anne Frank and family captured by Nazis

1958: Billboard Hot 100 appears for first time, ranking all music singles

1961: US president Barack Obama born in Honolulu, Hawaii

1965: Fredrik Reinfeldt, prime minister of Sweden, born in Österhaninge, Sweden

1971: Jeff Gordon, NASCAR racer, born in Vallejo, California

1984: Upper Volta changes its name to Burkina Faso

1987: US Federal Communications Commission votes to end the Fairness Doctrine

1997: Jeanne Calment dies in Arles, France, aged 122 - the longest confirmed human life span

2007: Barry Bonds (SF Giants) hits home run #755, tying Hank Aaron
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218. Board Game: Guns of August [Average Rating:6.82 Overall Rank:4617]
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Minnesota
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AUGUST 5

910: Battle of Tettenhall - Mercia and Wessex combined army defeats the last major Danish Viking army sent to attack Britain

1063: Gruffydd ap Llywelyn, King of Wales, killed by his own men

1583: First English territory in North America claimed by Humphrey Gilbert at site of what is now St John's, Newfoundland

1735: John Peter Zenger, writer for New York Weekly Journal, acquitted of seditious libel against the royal governor of New York; the successful defense was based on the fact that what he had published was true

1772: Russia, Austria, and Prussia sign a treaty dividing chunks of Poland among them; Poland wasn't consulted

1861: US government begins first federal income tax

1862: Joseph Merrick, aka The Elephant Man because of his physical deformities, born in Leicester, England

1874: Japan launches its postal savings system; this would eventually make Japan Post the largest financial firm on the planet

1882: Standard Oil of New Jersey established

1906: Persian king Mozaffar ad-Din Shah Qajar agrees to make Persia a constitutional monarchy

1914: Germany begins assault on Belgian fortress city of Liege (WW1)

1914: Ceremony for the first traffic lights, in Cleveland, Ohio

1930: Neil Armstrong, first man on the moon, born in Wapakoneta, Ohio

1944: Over 500 Japanese prisoners of war attempt to break out of a POW camp in Cowra, New South Wales, Australia; 359 escape, but all are captured or killed within 10 days

1957: American Bandstand makes its national TV debut, Jerry Lee Lewis plays

1962: Marilyn Monroe found dead

1962: Nelson Mandela imprisoned

1962: Patrick Ewing, basketball great, born in Kingston, Jamaica

1965: Indo-Pakistani War of 1965 begins with Pakistani troops crossing Line of Control in Kashmir

1981: President Reagan fires 11,000 striking air traffic controllers

2002: Divers recover turret of USS Monitor
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219. Board Game: Pacific War [Average Rating:7.50 Overall Rank:1172]
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AUGUST 6

1181: Supernova in the constellation Cassiopeia observed by Chinese astronomers

1284: Genoan fleet destroys Republic of Pisa fleet at Battle of Meloria; Pisa loses its position as a dominant Mediterranean naval power

1538: Bogotá founded by conquistador Gonzalo Jiménez de Quesada

1661: Dutch and Portuguese sign Treaty of the Hague, and Dutch recognize Portuguese sovereignty over the Dutch portion of modern Brazil in exchange for cold hard cash

1809: Alfred, Lord Tennyson, poet, born in Somersby, England

1825: Bolivia declares independence from Peru

1866: Matthew Henson, Arctic explorer, born in Nanjemoy, Maryland

1881: Alexander Fleming, biologist and pharmacologist who discovered penicillin, born in Lochfield, Scotland

1890: Baseball pitching great Cy Young makes major league debut with the Cleveland Spiders

1890: First execution by electric chair carried out in Auburn Prison, New York

1930: Judge Joseph Crater gets into a taxi in New York City and is never seen again

1942: Queen Wilhelmina of the Netherlands addresses US Congress, the first reigning queen to do so

1945: Atomic bomb dropped on Hiroshima (WW2)

1965: President Lyndon Johnson signs the Voting Rights Act of 1965 into law

1991: Tim Berners-Lee posts his summary of the World Wide Web project, and the Web debuts as a publicly available service on the Internet
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220. Board Game: Conflict of Heroes: Guadalcanal – Pacific Ocean 1942 [Average Rating:8.00 Unranked]
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AUGUST 7

1679: Le Griffon, built by LaSalle for his search for the Northwest Passage, becomes the first sailing ship on the Great Lakes

1794: President Washington announces that the militia would be called out to suppress the Whiskey Rebellion

1819: Simon Bolivar defeats the Spanish at Battle of Boyacá, which essentially gained Colombian independence, though fighting continued

1914: French launch their first of many offensives in World War One, at Mulhouse

1927: Peace Bridge opens between Fort Erie, Ontario, and Buffalo, New York

1940: Germany annexes Alsace-Lorraine from France

1942: US forces land on Guadalcanal, the beginning of the first major Allied offensive in the Pacific (WW2)

1947: Kon-Tiki completes its 4300 mile, 101 day voyage from Peru to an island near Tahiti; Thor Heyerdahl was trying to prove that Polynesia was settled from South America - an impressive voyage, but Heyerdahl is wrong

1955: First Sony TR-55 transistor radio sold by Tokyo Telecommunications Engineering Corporation

1958: Bruce Dickinson, singer, songwriter, airline pilot, fencer, broadcaster, author, screenwriter, actor and marketing director - oh and lead singer for Iron Maiden - born in Worksop, England

1964: US Congress passes Gulf of Tonkin Resolution, authorizing president Johnson to do more in Southeast Asia (Vietnam War)

1981: The Washington Star newspaper closes down after 128 years

1990: US president George H. W. Bush orders troops to Saudi Arabia in response to Iraq's invasion of Kuwait

1998: American embassies in Nairobi, Kenya, and Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, bombed by Al Qaeda; most of the 224 killed were Kenyans or Tanzanians

2007: Barry Bonds uses his bat and steroids to hit home run number 756, to pass Henry Aaron on the all-time home run list

2008: South Ossetia War begins with a Georgian offensive; the short war ends up with Russia occupying South Ossetia and Abkhazia in Georgia
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221. Board Game: 1918: Storm in the West [Average Rating:6.77 Overall Rank:3177]
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AUGUST 8

1605: Oulu, Finland, founded by Swedish king Charles IX

1786: Jacques Balmat and Michel-Gabriel Paccard become the first to successfully summit Mont Blanc

1793: The counter-revolutionary Revolt of Lyon begins (French Revolution)

1815: Napoleon Bonaparte sets sail for exile in St Helena, this time for good

1879: Emiliano Zapata, revolutionary leader, born in Anenecuilco, Mexico

1902: Paul Dirac, Nobel-prize winning theoretical physicist, born in Bristol, England

1908: Wilbur Wright flies a plane at a race course in Le Mans, France - the first public flight of the Wright Brothers

1918: Battle of Amiens - Allies launch offensives across much of the front against the Germans (WW1); Ludendorff calls this day "the black day of the German army"

1945: Soviet Union declares war on Japan; over a million Soviet and Mongolian troops invade Manchuria in a campaign that destroys Japan's largest effective fighting force, the Kwantung Army

1961: David Howell Evans, somewhat better known as U2 guitarist The Edge, born in London, England

1963: The Great Train Robbery - 15 robbers hold up the Royal Mail train from Glasgow to London near London and make off with £2.6 million in used bank notes

1967: The Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) is founded; original members are Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore and Thailand

1974: US president Richard Nixon announces he will resign effective the following day

1988: First night game at Wrigley Field - Cubs beat Mets 6-4

1988: People Power Uprising begins in Burma; after some heady days, it ends up being put down by the SLORC (State Law and Order Restoration Council

1988: She's Gotta Have It, Spike Lee's first feature-length movie, opens in US theaters

1988: Cease-fire announced between Iraq and Iran

1988: A few days after invading, Iraq annexes Kuwait as its 19th province

2009: Daniel Jarque, a defensive player with the Spanish football club Espanyol, dies of a heart attack aged 26
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222. Board Game: Smokey [Average Rating:0.00 Unranked]
Wendell
United States
Twin Cities
Minnesota
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AUGUST 9

48 BC: Caesar defeats Pompey at Battle of Pharsalus, the decisive battle in Caesar's Civil War

378: Visigoths defeat Romans (and kill the emperor, Valens) at Battle of Adrianople

681: Khanate of Bulgaria founded

1250: King Eric IV of Denmark killed by his brother's men

1483: Sistine Chapel opens

1696: Joseph Wenzel I, Prince of Liechtenstein, born in Prague; he ruled Liechtenstein three different times

1803: Robert Fulton tests a steam-powered paddle-boat on the River Seine in France

1814: The Creeks and US (General Andrew Jackson) sign Treaty of Fort Jackson, ending the Creek War; Creeks give up big parts of Alabama and Georgia

1854: Walden, by Henry David Thoreau, published

1898: Rudolf Diesel receives a US patent for his diesel internal combustion engine

1930: Betty Boop debuts in Dizzy Dishes

1938: Leonid Kuchma, second president of independent Ukraine, born in Novhorod-Siversky Raion, Ukrainian SSR

1938: Rod Laver, tennis great, born in Rockhampton, Queensland, Australia

1942: Mohandas Gandhi arrested in Bombay

1944: Smokey the Bear makes his first appearance on anti-forest-fire posters

1945: US drops its second atomic bomb, this one on Nagasaki, Japan (WW2)

1961: John Key, prime minister of New Zealand, born in Auckland

1965: Singapore kicked out of Malaysia (vote in the Malaysian Parliament was 126-0), and becomes independent

1968: Gillian Anderson, actress (The X-Files's Agent Scully), born in Chicago

1969: Charles Manson and followers kill actress Sharon Tate and four others in Tate's Los Angeles home

1974: Gerald Ford becomes first US president not to be elected as either president or vice-president
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223. Board Game: Musée du Louvre [Average Rating:6.00 Unranked]
Wendell
United States
Twin Cities
Minnesota
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AUGUST 10

787: Albumasar born in Balkh, Khurasan; a Persian astrologer, astronomer, and Islamic philosopher, he is considered to be the leading astrologer of the Muslim world, known for his theory that the world will come to an end when the seven planets are in conjunction in the last degree of Pisces

955: Otto I the Great, King of the Germans, defeats Magyars at Battle of Lechfeld near Augsburg

1270: Yekuno Amlak takes the imperial throne of Ethiopia, restoring the Solomonic dynasty to power after a 100-year interregnum; his dynasty lasts (with some interruptions) until 1974

1519: Ferdinand Magellan departs Seville with five ships to circumnavigate the globe

1628: Swedish warship Vasa sinks 20 minutes into her maiden voyage

1680: Pueblo Revolt against Spanish rule in New Mexico

1792: Revolutionary militia storm the Tuileries, massacre the Swiss Guards, and arrest the king Louis XVI (French Revolution)

1793: The Louvre museum opens in Paris

1821: Missouri becomes a state - the first one entirely west of the Mississippi

1846: Smithsonian Institute created when US president Polk signs law

1889: Charles Darrow, salesman and purported inventor of Monopoly, born (in Philadelphia?)

1897: AG Bayer chemist Felix Hoffmann produces a synthetically altered version of acetylsalicylic acid, building on earlier work by French chemist Charles Frederic Gerhardt; this is all about asprin

1909: Leo Fender, guitar designer and manufacturer, born in Anaheim, California

1914: German cruisers Goeben and Breslau, having eluded the Royal Navy, reach Constantinople, where they become gifts to the Ottoman navy (WW1)

1932: The first Rin Tin Tin dies in Los Angeles, aged about 14

1937: Electro String Corporation receives first-ever electric guitar patent

1945: Japan informs Allies it will accept terms of Potsdam Declaration, as long as the Emperor can remain (WW2)

1948: Candid Camera debuts on American television

1971: Society for American Baseball Research (SABR) founded

1984: Red Dawn (fun, but utterly absurd) released - first PG-13 film

2003: For first time, temperature of over 100F (it was actually 38.5C or 101.3F) recorded in Britain (Kent)
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224. Board Game: 2012: The Mayan Calendar [Average Rating:5.00 Unranked]
Wendell
United States
Twin Cities
Minnesota
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AUGUST 11

3114 BC: First day for the Mesoamerican Long Count calendar used by Mayans and others

2492 BC: Hayk defeats King Bel at the Battle of Giants near Julamerk southeast of Lake Van, marking the founding of Armenia (traditional date)

897: Wilfred the Hairy, Count of Barcelona, dies in battle against Moors

1259: Möngke Khan, the fourth Great Khan of the Mongols, dies of dysentery or cholera while on campaign near modern Chongquing; this brought the Mongols' various campaigns around the world to a halt and caused a four-year civil war to succeed Möngke

1667: Anna Maria Luisa de' Medici born in Florence; she was Electress Palatine; Duchess of Neuburg, Jülich and Berg, of Cham and the Upper Palatinate; Countess of Megen; she was also the last of the royal House of Medici

1786: Francis Light establishes a British colony in Penang

1804: Last Holy Roman Emperor Francis II assumes the title of Francis I, becoming first Emperor of Austria

1858: Christiaan Eijkman born in Nijkerk, Netherlands; he proved that beriberi is caused by poor diet

1877: Astronomer Asaph Hall discovers Mars' two moons and named them Phobos and Deimos

1897: Enid Blyton, writer of over 600 children's books, born in London

1909: "SOS" distress call used by a ship for the first time by SS Arapahoe off the coast of Cape Hatteras, North Carolina

1919: Germany adopts the Weimar constitution

1921: Alex Haley, writer and long-time Coast Guard member, born in Ithaca, New York; his most famous book was his novel (based on his family's history) Roots: The Saga of an American Family, which inspired the successful 1977 TV mini-series Roots

1943: German forces begin to evacuate Sicily (WW2)

1943: Pervez Musharraf, army general and president of Pakistan, born in Delhi, British India

1952: Hussein becomes king of Jordan after Jordanian parliament declares King Talal unfit to rule due to mental illness

1956: Artist Jackson Pollock dies in a car accident aged 44; he was drunk

1965: Watts riots begin in this Los Angeles neighborhood

1972: Last US ground combat troops leave Vietnam

1973: American Graffiti released, George Lucas' first hit movie

1973: Arguably, hip-hop music born at a party in the Bronx when DJ Kool Herc uses his new two-turntable technique (now known as break beat) for the first time before a large crowd

1994: Baseball strike begins, the rest of the season is lost

1999: Total eclipse of the sun - probably the most widely-viewed one ever because of its path

2003: Charles Taylor resigns as president of Liberia, goes into exile in Nigeria
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225. Board Game: King Philip's War [Average Rating:7.01 Overall Rank:3028]
Wendell
United States
Twin Cities
Minnesota
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AUGUST 12

30 BC: Cleopatra VII, Queen of Egypt, commits suicide; many ancient sources say it was from the bite of an asp

1281: Kublai Khan's invasion fleet destroyed by a typhoon (the Japanese called it kamikaze, divine wind)

1676: King Philip, aka Metacomet, chief of the Wampanoags, assassinated by a "Praying Indian", effectively ending King Philip's War

1851: Isaac Singer receives a patent for his sewing machine

1885: Keith Murdoch born in Melbourne; he started a media empire that is still around today run by his son, Rupert

1887: Erwin Schrödinger, physicist famous for his cat thought experiment, born in Vienna, Austria-Hungary

1889: Eleazar Sukenik born in Bialystok, Russian Poland; an archaeologist, he established the date and provenance of the Dead Sea Scrolls

1898: Spain and United States agree to armistice (Spanish-American War)

1898: United States formally assumes sovereignty over Hawaii

1925: Norris and Ross McWhirter, co-founders of Guinness Book of Records, born in London

1939: The Wizard of Oz premieres in Oconomowoc, Wisconsin

1953: Soviet Union tests its first hydrogen bomb

1961: Overnight August 12-13 East Germany begins to build the Berlin Wall

1964: South Africa banned from the Olympics due to its racist policies

1966: John Lennon apologizes at a news conference for saying "the Beatles are more popular than Jesus" (Lennon's comments were taken out of context but nevertheless offended many...)

1973: Muqtada al-Sadr, Iraqi Islamic political leader, born in Baghdad

1981: IBM introduces its first personal computer, IBM 5150; for $1600 you got a processor speed of 4.77 MHz, a choice of 5.25" floppy drives, cassette tape, and later hard disks; oh, and it used an operating system developed by some small company called Microsoft

1982: Mexico's announcement that it could not pay its debt spurs a debt crisis in Latin America
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