#2 is in the FAQ:
What happens if a Shadow moves onto a sealed Shadow Gate in the Shadow Realm, and then that Shadow Gate becomes unsealed at the beginning of the next Shadows' turn?
Okay, here goes... Suppose the Shadow in the Shadow Realm moves onto a sealed Shadow Gate. As stated in the rule book, the Shadow loses 1d2 life tokens. If it still has life tokens remaining, it ends its turn on the same hex as the sealed Shadow Gate.
This is where order of events becomes important. The order of events in the Shadow Realm is: 1. unseal a randomly determined sealed Shadow Gate, 2. add a life token to and move the Shadow in the Shadow Realm, 3. if there is not a Shadow in the Shadow Realm at the start of the Shadows' turn, spawn one.
So, now we have the Shadows' turn starting with a Shadow in a hex with a sealed Shadow Gate. If the Shadow Gate remains sealed, the Shadow gains a life token and moves in the Shadow Realm. If, on the other hand, the Shadow Gate is the one that becomes unsealed, the Shadow immediately enters Aethos through the Shadow Gate just as though it had moved onto an unsealed Shadow Gate. This happens before the Shadow can gain a life token, so the Shadow does not get its life token but it does enter Aethos. Typically, a Shadow may not enter Aethos and move on the same turn; however, the players are free to use any house rule they desire to deal with the Shadow's movement in this case.