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Judd Vance
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WICHITA
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"Just get that sucka to the designated place at the designated time and I will gladly designate his ass...for dismemberment!" - Sho Nuff.
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Background

Back in 2011, I started playing Shifting Sands with Mike Owens. I was blown away by the game and it has been a regular top 5 game of mine since then. After a few games, Mike asked me if I was interested in playing the follow up game called Festung Europa. I jumped at the chance and he sent me the rules and Vassal module. Circumstances changed and we never got to play it.

That was my first exposure to a Michael Rinella game. I had no idea that he was the king of the Area-Impulse system, but I quickly started gobbling up his games and his name made a game an insta-buy for me and I started making many of his games into Vassal modules (including this one).

A few years later, I started shooting Top 5 wargame videos as part of a trio on the Dice Tower called HAMTAG. We decided to make a "Top 5 anticipated games." I thought about Mike's games and remembered this game. I looked over the instructions and wrote him about the progress. Shortly after, I did a little play testing with it. Playing the game made me more anxious to receive the final product.

Overview:

Festung Europa is a two-player wargame covering the western theater of WWII from the invasion of Sicily through the end of of the war. It uses the Card Driven Mechanic (CDG), more specifically, it most closely resembles the type of CDG used in Paths of Glory, more specifically, World War II: Barbarossa to Berlin and Shifting Sands. It is designed by Michael Rinella. Mark Mahaffey provided the artwork. Compass Games published the game and it began shipping in August of 2016.

The full game takes about 4-5 hours to play between experienced players. It has two scenarios: the full 10 turn campaign game and the shortened Overlord 5-turn game.


Components:

The game includes a full color 22" x 36" paper map. The map features oversized hexes, so 3 units can be seen at a time without stacking. The country names are shown on the map and outlined in different colors. The maps also shown terrain features, such as mountains, forests, industrial centers, rivers, marshes, victory point locations, and beachheads. The map shows France, Norway, Denmark, Belgium, Italy, England, and Germany.



The map also includes tracks for the turn, the action rounds, the strategic bombing allocation options (covered later) and a general track.

The game includes two sheets of counters. However, following the trend of Rinella's games, this one is low counter density in that 56 of the 172 5/8" counters are actual combat counters. Like the other Paths of Glory-style games, there are optional event counters to help players remember if a specific event was played. There are various track counters. The game also includes an additional sheet of 120 1/2" control markers.



The game also includes 110 cards: 55 for each side. These cards are divided into three stacks per side: 1943, 1944, and 1945. The cards are the higher quality stock used in Compasses other games. I am not familiar with the lingo used for these, but these are types that you see in MMP and GMT games, also. They are not the cheap paper-stock that have to be sleeved. I would not recommend riffle-shuffling the cards, but that is my personal preference.



Finally, the game includes a full color 20-page rule book (15 pages of which are rules), two 8.5 x 11" heavy cardstock player aids and two 6-sided dice.


Objective of Play:



The Allied player starts with one of the two displayed cards: Husky or Roundup. Husky is the historical, conservative option. Roundup is the high risk/high reward option.

If Husky is selected, the Allied player has 6 turns (through Autumn of 1944) to conquer Rome, Paris, and Marseilles. If Roundup is selected, he has 4 turns to control Oslo, The Ruhr, and Marseilles. In either case, if he fails to control the 3 required cities in the time given, the Axis player automatically wins the game. If the Allies manage to control the 3 locations in time, then he has until the end of the game to drive the victory point meter down from 21 to 0. This is done by playing certain cards, controlling certain hexes, and/or getting the Axis player to play too many cards for replacement points.

The end of the game is a maximum of 10 turns. The Axis player could play the "Hitler Dies" card as early as the the winter of 1945 and if no German territory is controlled by the Soviets or Western Allies on the following turn, then the Axis player may open the turn with the Donitz card that ends the game at the end of the turn, causing the game to end as early as 8 turns (Spring 1945). In either case, if the victory point meter is above zero, the Axis player wins the game.




The Allied player has one other path to victory: to control the Berlin hex, which requires the following two cards to be played before this could happen:



Note: These last two options are not probable. The Allies can prevent the Donitz option by getting control of a German hex. The Axis can stop the Berlin option by playing the Enemy at the Gates card. So while the game will probably be won or lost on the Allies ability to get the VP meter to zero, a pair of nice historical "what ifs" were added to the game.

Overview of Play:

Turns Sequence:

Air Power Phase:



The Allied player places his 2-3 strategic bomber markers (the 3rd comes into play with an event card) and his 4 tactical fighter markers to missions.

The strategic air missions will either reduce Axis infrastructure (which hurts their ability to get replacement points when it driven down from 20 to 0), reduce their hand limit, reduce their replacement point actions by 1 point per card, or give you a 3 column shift on the combat results table.

The tactical options will either give you a one column shift on the combat results table (Strafe) or negate enemy ZOC and redeploy ability within 4 hexes of an allied air base (interdiction).

The game includes two allied air bases. They may be relocated to an Allied control hex during this phase. The tactical piece is then placed on the air base to indicate which one(s) possess this range and ability.

Draw cards:

Each player draws up to his hand limit. This can be reduced by certain events (ex: V1 Buzz Bombs and V2 Rockets) or by driving the Axis Infrastructure to zero or by placing a strategic bomber marker on the "Attack Industry" space.


Action Phase



Note: click the magnifying glass above the picture to see it enlarged.

This is the heart of the game. Starting with the Axis player, players alternate playing 6 action rounds each turn. In an action round, a player does one of two things:

a) Plays a card from his hand for one of the functions on it.

b) Plays no card and spends 1 OP (Operation Point). That point is used for a map action. It cannot be used for replacements or redeployment.


A card can be used for one of 4 functions.

a) Event: Play the card and enact the text. If the event has an asterisks on it, the card is removed from play. Otherwise it goes to the discard deck. Note: some events have a prerequisite in order to play or limitations. These are shown in the italics below the picture. The Donitz card in the "Objective of Play" section shows a card event prerequisite.

b) OPS: Instead of the event, you receive OPS (Operation Points) equal to the amount in the upper left hand corner of the card. This allows you to place "move" and "attack" markers on unit(s) in a hex. The event is ignored and the card is placed in the discard deck and recycles through the deck.

(Note: Some events allow you to do both the option "a" and "b". This is noted in the upper left hand part of the card. The 3rd and 4th card in the picture above are examples of this).

c) Redeploy: Instead of the event, you receive Reploy Points equal to the amount in the upper left hand corner of the card. This allows you to place move units long distances greater than their movement value. It costs 3 points to move an army or 1 point to move a corps and there are restrictions. The event is ignored and the card is placed in the discard deck and recycles through the deck.

Note: Unlike the other Paths of Glory games, there are no restrictions on this. You can do this on consecutive action rounds.

d) Replacements: Instead of the event, you receive Replacement Points equal to the amount in the upper left hand corner of the card. For each strategic bomber marker that the Allied player placed on the "Attack Oil Production" space in the Air Power Phase, this value is reduced by one for the Axis. (If two markers were placed on this, a 4 point card would be reduced to two points). These points are used to rebuild eliminated units or flip reduced units back to full strength. It costs 1/2 point for each corps step and 1 point for each army step.

Note: Unlike the other Paths of Glory games, there are no restrictions on this. You can do this on consecutive action rounds. Also, unlike Paths of Glory based games, you take the points immediately. You don't wait until the end of the turn.

However, the Axis player is only allowed one free Replacement point action per turn (6 rounds). Each time he plays another card for the replacement points option, he loses a victory point. Additionally, if the Axis infrastructure is driven to zero, he no longer gets the free action: each time he plays a card for this option, he loses a victory point.



Each Event card has different uses. These are shown in the example above:

Event: this is the basic event. Do what the text says. As long as there are no restrictions or unmet prerequisites preventing the event, you can play as many of them as you want: one per action round.

Invasion: These are limited to one per turn and only Shingle may be played during a winter turn. This allows you to place units in the invasion hex marked. Or in the case of Overlord or Roundup, you select which one you want to use out of multiple hexes. This becomes a supply point.

Reinforcements: Bring in new units into the game. Note: Unlike the other Paths of Glory games, there are no restrictions on this. You can play multiple reinforcement cards in a turn.

Combat: When combat occurs, the players (starting with the attacker) may play a single combat card from his hand. Unless the card says otherwise, that card remains there for the rest of the turn. This is unlike other Paths of Glory games, where the loser of the combat loses his committed combat cards. In each combat, each side can commit as many combat cards already on the table to the battle, along with any newly played combat card. At the end of the turn, all combat cards are removed from the table and either placed in the discard or removed from the game if it has an asterisks by the event name.

Attrition: This is actually part of the action round, but is worth noting. Attrition is checked after each player's 6th (and final) action round. In other words, the Axis player checks attrition after his 6th action round for his units only. Then the Allied player takes his 6th (and final) action round and checks attrition for his units only. This prevents some of the "gamey" moves that Paths of Glory-style games are occasionally known for, such as the infamous "Dance of Death."

1944/1945: Like Shifting Sands, when the new year is reached the new year's deck of cards is shuffled in with the undrawn cards and the discard pile and a new draw deck is created.


So you know how to play World War II: Barbarossa to Berlin or Shifting Sands already?


If you know these games, you are pretty familiar with the combat and move system. You place a move or an attack marker in a hex with at least one of your units. You move units first and remove the move markers and then conduct the attacks. Moving units can pass through a hex with an attack marker, but only mechanized units may stop on a hex with an attack marker and joint the combat. I cite these two games because in Paths of Glory, moving units may NOT end movement in an a space with an attack marker.

Also, the supply rules are similar to Shifting Sands: units within 3 hexes of a supply source are in full supply and spend one operation point per attack marker or move marker while units beyond 3 hexes are in limited supply and spend 1 operation point per unit in a hex to place an attack marker.

The retreat and advance after combat rules share many similarities with these games. While there are no mandatory orders like Paths of Glory and Barbarossa to Berlin, you will recognize similarly-styled events, such as the Orders from Rome card in Shifting Sands or the card that scores one side a VP unless it followed by a card from the other side, which would score that player a VP.

HOWEVER...

Beyond the differences in card simplicity noted above, the biggest difference is that this game has hexes. There are other differences:

Zone of Control: units with tank symbols on them are mechanized units and have zone of control. Allied corps units have armor symbols on their full strength and infantry symbols (no ZOC) on their reduced sides. Axis and Allied armored armies have tank symbols on both sides. German corps are separated into infantry corps and Panzer corps. Infantry corps have no ZOC and Panzer corps have tank symbols on both sides.

Zone of Control affects supply can provide a potential column shift (armor vs. infantry) and stops enemy movement.

Combat: The other games had two different Combat Results Tables: one for large units (ex: Armies) and another for smaller units (ex: Corps). Attack factors were summed, the column located and a die rolled for each side to determine point losses, which then went through a procedure for reducing units.

This game is far simpler. There is a single odds-based CRT. After calculating the odds of the units in combat, the column is determined (ex: 1-2, 1-1, 2-1, 3-1, etc). Shifts are made for terrain, out of supply effects, and armor vs. infantry. Then, the attacking Allied player may elect to commit a bomber counter that was placed on the "Carpet Bombing" space during the "Air Power Phase" for a 3 column shift OR (not both) he may elect to commit 1 or 2 tactical air units (a U.S. and Commonwealth air marker if both types are participating) for a 1 column shift each. Then each player may play a combat card.

The final column and die roll modifier is determined, the d6 is rolled and the result shows the number of step losses taken by each side.

If an Army unit takes 2 step losses, and there is an same color corps unit in the reserve box, the unit can enter the board and may take step losses. Unlike the other games, if there are no units in the reserve, the army unit is not permanently eliminated.

Finally, the reserve boxes play differently than the other games. In those games you have use a strategic movement/redeploy feature to move back and forth from the reserve box to the game board. In this game, 4 of the 5 reserve boxes are connected to the hexes. For a single OPS point, you may activate every unit in the reserve and move them directly to the board, into a hex connecting to the shaded reserve area (Axis) or any beachhead hex that is connected to the shaded reserve box (Allies). The following two pictures illustrate which hexes the reserve units can move into:






Only the German OWK reserve box requires strategic movement to move back and forth. The other reserve boxes are the Eastern Front and Balkans Front for the Axis and the North African and U.K. Reserves for the Allies.

These rules allow for greater flexibility with the reserves, as you can keep units in to help you absorb hits and then easily move them out if you get desperate.

Overall, a knowledge of the Paths of Glory system may make it easier to understand the basic mechanics of the game, but at the same time, the experienced player in these games will have to "unlearn" the fiddlier aspects of those games, as this system is much more intuitive, simpler, and less rules intensive.

Results:

What I liked so much about Shifting Sands was the intensity: the Axis can come so close to scoring the auto-victory during the second year. Then if the Allies hold on, the Axis auto-victory becomes impossible and the Allies excess units swing the tide of the game, yet they are racing time to push the VP meter into the victory range before the game ends. The tension is constant through the game.

Likewise, in this, there is a constant tension. But instead of both sides having a strength advantage over the other, the Allies have more strength, but the clock is constantly ticking against them.

Too many games on this topic have the Axis-Allied victory condition based on the Allies reaching meeting or exceeding their historical counterparts by the end of the game. The Axis spend the entire game getting beat up and trying to stall for that last win/lose check. I do not find that fun at all -- at least from the Axis perspective.

In this game, the Axis have every reason to fight you hard in Sicily and the mountains of Italy and the beaches of France and the outskirts of Paris. They have a real chance to win the game -- not in terms of conquering England, but rather forcing the Allies to push hard and heavy the entire game. The Allies have to push hard. The Axis auto-win conditions allow for no time to catch your breath.

Meanwhile, once that condition is overcome, you have to push into Germany. If not, Donitz will end the game early. Then once you are in Germany, you have to conquer enough of it to win. The Axis have every reason to put up a stout defense.

Meanwhile, there is a real resource allocation struggle with the bombers. If you go all out for the infrastructure, you can stop the Axis ability to replace units and then go win a war of attrition while limiting his hand size (and reducing his chances of getting good combat cards). However, you REALLY need that carpet bombing to overcome the terrain advantages of the Axis. If you go for the oil, you reduce his ability to replace attrition or you could limit his hand size, so he has a harder time churning the deck.

The Axis have their own problems. It is a game of stalling, but the resources are limited. It is harder to rebuild units. What happens when you get a pair of 4 OPS cards in your hand. Rebuild lots of units and take the VP penalty or hope you can hold out until next turn and use that other card, and what if you hold out and get another high OPS card next turn? You have the same conundrum all over again!

And the Allies are pushing from 2 directions. If you put all of your rebuilt units on the Rhine, they will push up through Italy and overrun the country. The Alps are great terrain, but the carpet bombers and some bad luck can blow your defenses wide open if you did not allocate enough units and counted on trying to rebuild losses as they occurred. Additionally as the game goes on, the Allies get more cards that allow them to place a lot of attack markers, making their final push very powerful against your depleted forces and infrastructure.

Another thing about this game that an experienced Paths of Glory player who is new to this game may not notice: you may think you want to pass up some of those events that give you a lot of OPS points or allow you to reduce infrastructure or victory points. After all, they will surely show up before the end of the game before either would be to zero, so why not use them then and get the high OPS points for some attacks? Because those cards clog your deck. There are some really important events you will want in 1944 and in 1944, the Axis are going to unleash the V1s and V2s and limit your hand size. That makes it very hard to get those events into your hand, so you are going to want to cull those cards, but if you cull too much, you aren't pushing enough and time is ticking...

In other words, both sides have a lot of struggles and tension and it is a constant race. This is what makes the game so fun and the simplicity of it allows you to enjoy the game instead of constantly fighting with the rule book.

One other thing: there is an optional rule that allows each side to take a card of his choice into has hand at the start of the year. Use it. Otherwise, you have a big deck of cards and anything can happen -- such as the Allies failing to draw the Overlord card and automatically losing the game because they can't liberate Paris in time. By their natures, CDGs can have funky outlier games, but this rule reduces that.

How does it compare to its kin?

While some events depend on each other, it not nearly as scripted as Paths of Glory and Barbarossa to Berlin. You don't have anything like fall of the Czar or U.S. entry from Paths of Glory (or for that matter, Hercules in Shifting Sands). From scripting events to the rules themselves, the game just feels more "free," allowing the players to experiment instead of squeezing them into a certain direction.

Also, while I do love Paths of Glory, it can be gamey. There are many complaints about the corps that put the entire western front out of supply, "dances with death" and a frequent criticism about the game being a fun game but a poor simulation of WWI.

This game removes that gaminess with better supply rules, better attrition checks, and gameplay that more closely resembles the history. There are a few alt-history choices, but more often than not, you are going to see something closer to reality.

Conclusion:

This is the strategic Western Front game I have been looking for my whole life: deep strategies, simple rules, and historical events and strategies.

There are not a lot fiddly rules trying to force you to re-create history, as Paths of Glory-style games are often guilty of. Instead, the logical strategy makes you follow the historical route. The Axis defenses will make sense historically, as well, as you try to slow the Allies at every turn.

Additionally, the addition of the Roundup card provides a nice historical "what if." The option to invade France in 1943 or invade Norway was certainly on the table. The victory conditions provide a "design for effect" to make you greatly consider NOT using it. Your reasons won't necessarily be the same as Ike's but it nice to have that optional route to study.

Simply put, this game is a big time win. I rate it a "10." I'm not ready to make a direct comparison to Shifting Sands at this time. Like I said, it has been a top 5 game since I played it. Right now, I have this one in the top 10. I simply cannot get enough of it. Every time I finish it, and put it up and pull a new game out, I find myself considering new strategies in this, and pulling it back out again. It is the to the point that I put a counter tray in the game and put the units back in according to the initial set up.

Is it Michael Rinella's masterpiece? At this point, it is too early to say. Plus, the guy has so many great works, it's really hard to pick out his magnum opus. Shifting Sands is my favorite Rinella game, but that is because I tend to favor CDGs. Monty's Gamble, Not War But Murder, and even Last Battle could make a strong argument for being his greatest work.

What is certain is that this game puts his stamp on the CDG genre. He took the Ted Racier system and made it much cleaner and accessible. He has the western front and the North African theater covered. I hope we see this system transported to the eastern front (hint, hint, nudge, nudge). Maybe this is the foundation for his greatest work yet to come.
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David Gómez Relloso
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Very nice review Judd! I expect to play this one soon, and I am more eager now after reading your article.

Only one comment:
Quote:
I cite these two games because in Paths of Glory, moving units may end movement in an a space with an attack marker.

In PoG units may NOT end their movement in a space marked for combat.

David
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Bob Zurunkel
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Excellent review.
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Eric Teoro
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I was on the fence. You pushed me over.

Thank you for the time you spent to write this review.
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Judd Vance
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WICHITA
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Gentilhombre wrote:
Very nice review Judd! I expect to play this one soon, and I am more eager now after reading your article.

Only one comment:
Quote:
I cite these two games because in Paths of Glory, moving units may end movement in an a space with an attack marker.

In PoG units may NOT end their movement in a space marked for combat.

David


Yeah, I caught that on the read and edited it. You must have been typing this as I was typing that.

And here I thought my proof reading at 1:00 AM was good enough. shake
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Michael Rinella
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It's Barbarossa to Berlin and Shifting Sands where certain units may move and end their movement on a space with an attack marker (armored units only in both games as I recall).
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Chris Friend
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This is one of the finest game reviews I've ever read. If not the finest. Well done sir.
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Severus Snape
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As Maxim 168 says: "L'espérance, toute trompeuse qu'elle est, sert au moins à nous mener à la fin de la vie par un chemin agréable."
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Judd, please tell us one thing that you do not like about the game, or that you wish had been changed or tweaked.

goo
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Judd Vance
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bentlarsen wrote:
Judd, please tell us one thing that you do not like about the game, or that you wish had been changed or tweaked.

:goo:


The cards look similar. You can see in the picture above. Basically a black stripe on the front differentiates them. This is not a problem in face-to-face games, as each player has his own deck. However, in my solitaire games, I find myself putting them in the wrong discard pile.

The map works. It is functional. I've seen worse, such as from our pals at Worthington, for instance. However, with such a brilliant game, I wish Mike would have got to team up with Charles Kiebler for a 3rd straight time (Last Battle has an awesome map), and got a map that is proportionally as good as the game.

A card manifest in the back of the rule book with card explanations would have been cool. I can always use Wiki to look them up, but I much prefer Mike's writing.

That's all aesthetics. I never talk a lot about maps in my reviews. Partly because I'm a function over form guy and also because I figure some may like it and others may hate it. I just put the pics out there and let others decide for themselves if they find it attractive, while I talk about the functionality of the map.

The reason I went on and on about this game is because I can't think of another game that had this immediate of an impact on me. I set it up and play. I take it down. I try to set something else up. My mind drifts back to this one. I tear the other game down and set this up and play again. Rinse-Repeat. I'm on my 6th game in 2 weeks, and each game takes 2 nights. (Keep in mind that I had plenty of playtests last year with the Roundup card). And I'm still learning things: in my most current game, I learned that the opening card I took into my Axis hand was not the best card. I learned that the hard way as the Allies liberated Rome in the Autumn of 1943.
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Severus Snape
Canada
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As Maxim 168 says: "L'espérance, toute trompeuse qu'elle est, sert au moins à nous mener à la fin de la vie par un chemin agréable."
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"I'm not allowed to say how many planes joined the raid, but I counted them all out and I counted them all back." Brian Hanrahan
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Quote:
The reason I went on and on about this game is because I can't think of another game that had this immediate of an impact on me. I set it up and play. I take it down. I try to set something else up.


Not even Hands in the Sea tempts you from this one?

Thank you for your honest feedback. It just makes Mike's design seem all the better for it.

goo
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Judd Vance
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I can play HITS in one setting. Afterword, I play this. Then I play hands. Then I play this. When I tried to play Zulus on the ramparts, I stopped and pulled this back out. Same with two other games.
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Bob Zurunkel
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How is it solitaire? I've never played a CDG game, and this look like a good one to start with.
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Martin Gallo
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Playable and a great way to learn the mechanics and get familiar with the events and decisions.

There is a bluffing element to all CDGs in that you do not know what events your opponent has nor the exact makeup of his activation ability (the operations side, where you are spending points to activate units). This gets lost when I play solo but other than that it is much like any other two-player game where you play it solo - You still know your opponents overall plan.
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Bob Zurunkel
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martimer wrote:
Playable and a great way to learn the mechanics and get familiar with the events and decisions.

There is a bluffing element to all CDGs in that you do not know what events your opponent has nor the exact makeup of his activation ability (the operations side, where you are spending points to activate units). This gets lost when I play solo but other than that it is much like any other two-player game where you play it solo - You still know your opponents overall plan.


Sounds good, thanks!
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Michael Rinella
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I am already making mental notes for the intended sequel set on the eastern front, tentative title Clash of Tyrants.

Unless I publish a game myself, like I did with Operation Battleaxe and Last Battle: Ie Shima, I have no control over who gets hired to do the art. It's on somebody else's dime. The box art and card art for Festung Europa I really like. The counters are good, though the font size - which does not manifest itself on a computer screen - was a bit too small for the "xxx" and "xxxx" designations and should have been white on every unit. The map is serviceable. It looks like Western Europe. I neither love it or hate it.

I would point out that the artwork for Shifting Sands had its own issues but produced little if any "art angst" - the game went on to sell out the entire print run and remains in demand. Who knows, maybe a second edition if we can ever get the second edition of Monty's Gamble out the door.
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Steven Cameron
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airjudden wrote:

The Allied player has one other path to victory: to control the Berlin hex, which requires the following two cards to be played before this could happen:


Is that just because of rule 16.2 (and is independent of the Soviet Occupation Zone)? So if Tehran/Enemy at the Gates events are never played, the Allies could enter any German hex except Berlin?
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Judd Vance
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WICHITA
Kansas
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No, if Tehran was never played, you could directly attack Berlin, so long as he did not play Enemy at the Gates.
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fambans `
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Bethel Park
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Maybe it's my monitor, but the hexes on that map are taller than they are wide. Can someone with the actual map verify or debunk that?
 
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Martin Gallo
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The hexes are taller than they are wide. This has been discussed several times. It actually is helpful as it provides more room in the hex so you can see the terrain. Some people have serious problems with it, though.
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Michael Rinella
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You'd think it was a mold consecrated by Charles S. Roberts himself. The hexes are huge (see the screen shots). Their shape is immaterial.
 
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Judd Vance
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WICHITA
Kansas
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The only person who should complain about irregular hexes is the Vassal module designer.

As a player, they are a huge plus. Trust me, when you play the game, you will prefer these hexes to small ones.

As a Vassal designer, they did not allow me to create a simple grid overlay, so I outlined every single hex. But that is because Mike likes to tasks me that way: even when he's not making an Area-Impulse game (with areas that I have to trace individually), he's doing this to me. :D

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Michael Rinella
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I honestly don't even notice it on a computer screen. The hexes on the printed map, I agree, are noticeably longer north/south than east/west. But it doesn't impact play at all. I don't follow the "art angst" at consimworld because it's mostly by the usual suspects who aren't fans of any of my games and are just looking for a backhand way of dissing my work.
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Martin Gallo
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I recommend not taking it personally.
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Michael Rinella
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Never do.

I've posted a picture from the Vassal module in the pictures section.
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stuart glanvville
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Great review, hoping to pick this up in the not too distant future!
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