Yesterday I played my first game of Inis, after getting the game from Essen.
There was one situation when an opponent played New alliances and replaced one of my clans. I then wanted to play an epic tale card where I can get a clan back after it was removed.
After a short discussion we ruled it as it was not removed, it was replaced, and therefore my epic card could not hinder it. We came to that conclusion after looking at the wording for clashes, where it specifically says "remove" and the epic card is focused on combat.
You are right, it is on purpose that we didn't use "removed". It is not removed.
Another thing is the timing of playing triskel cards triggered by playing another card.
When it says "After you play X card...", do you play the triskel card exactly when you put the X card into play or complete the X card's action first?
After you complete the card effects.