Vila Nova de Gaia
I would answer "no" to both questions.
Can a Nofu call for privilege against a lord of higher rank, if he declares a revolution of even higher rank?According to the rules, you cannot call for privilege if your lord is of lower rank than the declaring player.
Also, if you may call for privilege and choose to do so, you declare your action after calling for privilege.
So, I believe that declaring a revolution in your example cannot happen, since the Nofu fails to satisfy the conditions to call for privilege in the first place.
Is the actual rank of a Nofu increased by the laborers in the square when he is attacking or recruiting another laborer?The rules say: "The laborers in the square are only used with the second special ability of the Nofu: Revolution". (Emphasis added.)
I take that as implying that the laborers are not used in any other situation.