Three Kingdoms Redux: Artwork for State Enhancements Explained
Christina Ng
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As the reader of this geeklist may already know, we have developed a new board game by the name of Three Kingdoms Redux. It is based on the three kingdoms era, focusing on the states of Wei 魏, Wu 吳 and Shu 蜀. The rules have been posted, artwork is ongoing, many pictures have been shared, and we expect manufacturing to take place in 2014.

We have placed a lot of importance on capturing the historical theme in Three Kingdoms Redux. Besides tying the game mechanics to the various historical aspects of the three kingdoms era, as discussed in a previous geeklist, artwork is another avenue via which theme was enhanced.

We have already presented the illustrations of some of the generals in a previous geeklist. Besides generals, various items and inventions of the three kingdoms era also play a vital role in Three Kingdoms Redux. These are referred to as state enhancements in the board game.

In this geeklist, we share with you 12 of these state enhancements' illustrations and describe the historical background of each. We have done much research and requested our artist, Ray Toh, to draw them in a historically accurate manner where possible. It is worth noting that there are a total of 42 state enhancements in Three Kingdoms Redux, split into two equal decks, namely the Separation 分 and Unification 合 decks.

For the curious readers, the two decks' names were inspired by the first line of the Romance of the Three Kingdoms novel:
"天下大勢,分久必合,合久必分。" which means "All great powers reunify after long periods of division, wane and break up after long periods of unification."

Links:
Three Kingdoms Redux
Starting Player
Three Kingdoms Redux Game Rules
Three Kingdoms Redux Compendium

Geeklists related to Three Kingdoms Redux:
We Are Taking The Plunge! (Part 1)
We Are Taking The Plunge! (Part 2)
We Are Taking The Plunge! (Part 3)
We Are Taking The Plunge! (Part 4)
We Are Taking The Plunge! (Part 5)
Geeklist discussing historical perspective of Three Kingdoms Redux
Geeklist discussing artwork of generals of Three Kingdoms Redux

The all important Significant Other:
Keng Leong Yeo
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小富靠勤,中富靠智,大富靠德。
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1. Board Game: Three Kingdoms Redux [Average Rating:7.97 Overall Rank:879]
Christina Ng
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说了又不听,听了又不懂,不懂又不问,问了又不做,做了又做错,错了又不认,认了又不改,改了又不服,不服又不说,那你要我怎麽办?
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Separation 分 Deck

Imperial Jade Seal

The Imperial Jade Seal's chinese name is 傳國玉璽, read chuán guó yù xǐ, and translates to Heirloom Jade Seal. It originated as a famous piece of jade of the Zhao state. After Qin Shi Huang unified China under the Qin Dynasty, he ordered the jade to be carved into a seal.

The words carved on it were 受命於天,既壽永昌, read shòu mìng yú tiān, jí shòu yǒng cāng. It meant that the holder of the seal has received the mandate from heaven (to rule China), and would therefore enjoy a long and prosperous life.

The Imperial Jade Seal was passed on even after the fall of the Qin Dynasty. It became a symbol of power and proof that the holder is the emperor. During the chaotic early period of the three kingdoms era, the Imperial Jade Seal was lost temporarily when the capital city Luo Yang was sacked and razed.

Sun Jian, father of Sun Ce and Sun Quan, was the first general to re-enter Luo Yang and he discovered the Imperial Jade Seal in a well.


Sun Jian was to die shortly after and his two sons would go on to lay the foundations of Wu state.


The picture above shows the Imperial Jade Seal in its form during the three kingdoms era. During the fall of Western Han Dynasty and formation of the short-lived Xin Dynasty, the empress dowager had thrown the seal onto the ground in anger, chipping one corner in doing so. The corner was later restored with gold by the emperor of the Xin Dynasty. The Imperial Jade Seal during the three kingdoms era should therefore be showing the chip and restored gold corner.
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2. Board Game: Three Kingdoms Redux [Average Rating:7.97 Overall Rank:879]
Christina Ng
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说了又不听,听了又不懂,不懂又不问,问了又不做,做了又做错,错了又不认,认了又不改,改了又不服,不服又不说,那你要我怎麽办?
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Separation 分 Deck

Armistice with Border Tribe

The Han dynasty has always experienced challenges in managing its border tribes, e.g. the Xiong Nu in the north. Measures taken varied and included military campaigns, giving tributes, economic trade, and even marriage treaties.

Some of these measures continued into the three kingdoms era. Each of the three states experienced challenges in managing its corresponding border tribes, namely the Xiong Nu with Wei, Shan Yue with Wu and Nan Man with Shu.

We postulated that treaties between the states and their border tribes would have existed, since each state had subjugated its border tribe at some point in time during the three kingdoms era.


The picture above shows our impression of one such treaty. We needed two seal stamps for the picture, one to represent one of the three states of Wei, Wu or Shu, and the other to represent a border tribe. We were unable to find any surviving official seal stamps from that era via our research. Even if we did, it would mean we have to choose between one of the states of Wei, Wu or Shu, which would be biased.

It was therefore decided to include an inside joke on the illustration of this state enhancement card.

The top and bottom seal stamps are showing the words 起始玩者 and 三國得志 respectively. 起始玩者 is read "qí shǐ wán zhě" and means "Starting Player", which is of course the publisher name. 三國得志 is read "sān guó dé zhì" and means "Three Kingdoms Redux", which is the board game name. ninja
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3. Board Game: Three Kingdoms Redux [Average Rating:7.97 Overall Rank:879]
Christina Ng
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说了又不听,听了又不懂,不懂又不问,问了又不做,做了又做错,错了又不认,认了又不改,改了又不服,不服又不说,那你要我怎麽办?
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Separation 分 Deck

Bronze Sparrow

The Bronze Sparrow is a fictitious item introduced in the Romance of the Three Kingdoms novel. It appears in the story after Cao Cao had successfully reunified the northern region of China, following his victory over Yuan Shao in the pivotal Battle Of Guan Du.

In the scene leading to the discovery, Xun You, one of Cao Cao's capable advisors, was standing atop a city's defensive walls and studying the stars. Cao Cao confided in him about his hesitation in invading the southern region of China. Whilst reassuring Cao Cao, Xun You observed a streak of golden light rising from afar.

He was duly despatched to investigate and the Bronze Sparrow was discovered. Xun You interpreted it as a good omen for Cao Cao, who was elated. That led to the construction of the Bronze Sparrow Platform to honour and worship the Bronze Sparrow.

Whilst the Bronze Sparrow itself does not exist, the Bronze Sparrow Platform does. In history, the platform was constructed to celebrate Cao Cao's ultimate victory over Yuan Shao.


The picture above shows our impression of Bronze Sparrow. Given its age and that it had been buried for some time, it was likely to be showing some wear and carried a greenish tinge of old bronze when discovered by Xun You.
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4. Board Game: Three Kingdoms Redux [Average Rating:7.97 Overall Rank:879]
Christina Ng
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说了又不听,听了又不懂,不懂又不问,问了又不做,做了又做错,错了又不认,认了又不改,改了又不服,不服又不说,那你要我怎麽办?
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Separation 分 Deck

Nine-Rank System (Jiu Pin Zhong Zheng Zhi)

The Nine-Rank System's chinese name is 九品中正制, read jiǔ pǐn zhōng zhèng zhì. It was a civil service nomination system that existed during the three kingdoms era. It was put forward by Chen Qun, a court official of Wei, to Cao Cao as a means of attracting and promoting talent. Cao Cao understood the importance of attracting good men to serve under him and implemented the system.

Under the Nine-Rank System, talented candidates were selected and categorised into one of the nine grades based on their abilities. Unfortunately, it was subsequently abused after three kingdoms era, with the rich and powerful often the ones selected.


In the picture above, we see two uniformed officials summoned for a meeting with the emperor (not drawn). Their uniforms indicate that they are first grade (highest grade) officials. The one on the left is a civil official and the other a military officer.

The first grade civil official’s uniform has a picture of a crane on it. His headgear is squarish with several ridges on it. The ridges is another indicator of the official's grade, with seven ridges denoting a first grade civil official.

The first grade military officer’s uniform has a picture of a kirin on it. His headgear is adorned with two white crossbill feathers. The feathers symbolises bravery.
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5. Board Game: Three Kingdoms Redux [Average Rating:7.97 Overall Rank:879]
Christina Ng
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说了又不听,听了又不懂,不懂又不问,问了又不做,做了又做错,错了又不认,认了又不改,改了又不服,不服又不说,那你要我怎麽办?
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Separation 分 Deck

Repeating Crossbow

The repeating crossbow also goes by the name of 諸葛弩, read zhū gé nǔ. It was named after its inventor, Zhuge Liang, the prime minister of Shu. The first repeating crossbow appeared before Zhuge Liang's time, but he was widely credited for improving its design. His version shot at a faster rate over a longer range, and was used in his northern campaigns against Wei.


Amazingly, the repeating crossbow was still in use during the Qing Dynasty (1644-1912), making it one of the longest-lived mechanical weapons.


The picture above shows our impression of the repeating crossbow, with a magazine to hold additional bolts attached on top.
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6. Board Game: Three Kingdoms Redux [Average Rating:7.97 Overall Rank:879]
Christina Ng
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说了又不听,听了又不懂,不懂又不问,问了又不做,做了又做错,错了又不认,认了又不改,改了又不服,不服又不说,那你要我怎麽办?
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Separation 分 Deck

Watchtower

Watchtowers were widely used in ancient China as a warning system against invaders. Indeed, the Great Wall of China has watchtowers at regular intervals. The warnings usually took the form of fire or smoke.

The most famous story of the three kingdoms era involving watchtowers revolved around Guan Yu. Guan Yu was stationed to guard Jingzhou, but had been ordered to attack Wei in north Jingzhou. To guard against potential Wu invasions from the east, he set up watchtowers along the Yangtze river as a warning system.

Lu Meng and Lu Xun of Wu set up a ruse that led to Guan Yu letting down his guard and drawing on the reserves in Jingzhou to support his attacks on Wei. Lu Meng then led Wu naval troops, dressed up as merchants, to first capture the watchtowers by night, effectively negating the warning system, before proceeding to overrun the entire Jingzhou. The defeat eventually led to Guan Yu's death.


The picture above shows our impression of one of Guan Yu's watchtowers by the Yangtze river. There is a cauldron on top of the watchtower, which is lit when danger is spotted.
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7. Board Game: Three Kingdoms Redux [Average Rating:7.97 Overall Rank:879]
Christina Ng
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说了又不听,听了又不懂,不懂又不问,问了又不做,做了又做错,错了又不认,认了又不改,改了又不服,不服又不说,那你要我怎麽办?
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Unification 合 Deck

Hereditary Army System

The Hereditary Army System's chinese name is 部曲, read bù qū.

The origins of the system can be traced to late eastern Han dynasty. During and after the Yellow Turbans rebellion of 184AD, bandits became a common and constant menace to the commoner. Worried about their own safety, the peasants looked to aristocrats for leadership and protection by serving under them voluntarily. In return for protection, they provided farming labour for the aristocrats.

The stronger men among the peasants were subsequently chosen to form militia. These became known as buqu. These men continued to work as farmers, but when their security was threatened, would take up arms to protect their families under the command of the aristocrat.

Another characteristic of the buqu was that any rank held by a soldier would be inherited by his son or a male relative on his passing.

The hereditary army system contrasts with the conscription system that most of us may be more familiar with.

It is interesting to note that the hereditary army system was widely used during the three kingdoms era, and the Jin dynasty and Southern and Northern Dynasties after it.


The picture above depicts how we imagined the process of shortlisting the able-bodied to be like. A senior soldier is reading out the names of the chosen men, and some are stepping up with a little less enthusiasm.

It reminds me of how my Significant Other is like when his annual in-camp training comes around... gulp
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8. Board Game: Three Kingdoms Redux [Average Rating:7.97 Overall Rank:879]
Christina Ng
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说了又不听,听了又不懂,不懂又不问,问了又不做,做了又做错,错了又不认,认了又不改,改了又不服,不服又不说,那你要我怎麽办?
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Unification 合 Deck

Finery Forge and Ferghana (Dawan) horse

There is archaelogical evidence suggesting that the finery forge existed at least a few centuries before the three kingdoms era. These were used during the Han dynasty to convert cast iron and pig iron into wrought iron and steel. With the latter two materials, more advanced weapons were produced, such as iron arrow heads and iron spears.

The Ferghana horse, or 大宛馬, read dà yuān mǎ, originated from Central Asia. The opening of the Silk Road led to the import of superior breeds of horses, such as the Ferghana horse. These helped to strengthen the Han cavalry and defeat the Xiongnu. Such was their quality that a Han emperor renamed them "Heavenly Horses".

The Ferghana horse was also known to "sweat blood", but it was later discovered that they were due to skin sores caused by a tiny worm. gulp

In any case, there is no doubt that the finery forge and Ferghana horse were both firmly established in China by the three kingdoms era.


The picture above shows a finery forge in operation whilst a Ferghana horse is being led by a soldier to its stable. We decided against including any "bloody sweat" for our version of the Ferghana horse.
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9. Board Game: Three Kingdoms Redux [Average Rating:7.97 Overall Rank:879]
Christina Ng
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说了又不听,听了又不懂,不懂又不问,问了又不做,做了又做错,错了又不认,认了又不改,改了又不服,不服又不说,那你要我怎麽办?
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Unification 合 Deck

Heavy Moldboard Plough

Ploughs were invented way before the Han dynasty, though continual improvements were made to it. By the time of the Han dynasty, the entire ploughshare was iron and the ploughs became commonly known as heavy moldboard ploughs. Agriculture was the mainstay of the Han economy, and the advent of the heavy moldboard plough was a boon, particularly for the rich who could afford the ploughs and the oxen to pull them.


The picture above shows our impression of a heavy moldboard plough in action. As the plough is being put to work, the iron ploughshare is hidden under the topsoil from our view.

The heavy moldboard plow is also one of two tributes we have included in Three Kingdoms Redux for our favourite board game, Agricola. See if you can spot the other tribute when you get the opportunity to try the published version of the board game.
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10. Board Game: Three Kingdoms Redux [Average Rating:7.97 Overall Rank:879]
Christina Ng
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说了又不听,听了又不懂,不懂又不问,问了又不做,做了又做错,错了又不认,认了又不改,改了又不服,不服又不说,那你要我怎麽办?
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Unification 合 Deck

Military Habitation (Tuntian) System

The Military Habitation System's chinese name is 屯田制, read tún tián zhì. Its origins can be found in the Han dynasty, where soldiers were put to work on conquered lands, developing them into useful farming land. The harvested crops were retained for military use. This effectively shortened the supply lines, with the added advantage of putting idle manpower to good use.

Cao Cao developed a civilian form of tuntian, where war refugees were assigned plots of land to farm, with equipment such as ploughs and oxen provided by the government at a low price. In return, half of the harvest was paid as tax. This brought much economic progress and kept his armies well-supplied.

Zhuge Liang, the prime minister of Shu, was also an exponent of tuntian. In 234AD, his final northern expedition into Wei was bogged down and developed quickly into a stalemate. Concerned with the long and difficult supply lines to Shu, Zhuge Liang adopted the military habitation system and put his soldiers to work. Unfortunately, his health deteriorated during the stalemate, perhaps out of frustration over the lack of progress, and he passed away shortly after.


The picture above shows a group of soldiers farming. The senior soldier in the foreground is supervising the work.
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11. Board Game: Three Kingdoms Redux [Average Rating:7.97 Overall Rank:879]
Christina Ng
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说了又不听,听了又不懂,不懂又不问,问了又不做,做了又做错,错了又不认,认了又不改,改了又不服,不服又不说,那你要我怎麽办?
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Unification 合 Deck

Square-Pallet Chain Pumps

The square-pallet chain pumps are parts of a hydraulic system used to transport water. There are designs powered by hand, by feet, by wind, or by river current. It was known to be common in the countryside by late Han dynasty and was used mainly for the irrigation of rice fields.

The chain pumps were also used to transport water into palaces and living quarters for daily use.


The picture above shows our impression of one design of the square-pallet chain pump. It is constructed next to a river to transport water for irrigation of adjacent rice fields. Farmers can be seen working in the fields in the background.
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12. Board Game: Three Kingdoms Redux [Average Rating:7.97 Overall Rank:879]
Christina Ng
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说了又不听,听了又不懂,不懂又不问,问了又不做,做了又做错,错了又不认,认了又不改,改了又不服,不服又不说,那你要我怎麽办?
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Unification 合 Deck

Wooden Ox

The Wooden Ox's chinese name is 木牛流馬, read mù niú liú mǎ, and translates to wooden ox flowing horse.

The wooden ox was invented by Zhuge Liang to ease the transport of supplies for his northern campaigns against Wei. The terrain of Shu is mountainous and that made transporting supplies difficult. The wooden ox or wheelbarrow, with only one front wheel, was a more flexible way of circumventing the rocky terrain.


The picture above shows our impression of the wooden ox. It is pushed by a soldier, who is using it to transport some supplies to the front line.

The real form of wooden ox is now unclear, given that it was supposedly invented 2000 years ago. It probably looked a little like a ox's head when empty, thereby giving its name.

Some modern attempts at replicating it intentionally affixes an ox's head at the front of the wheelbarrow, which makes it look rather unrealistic. We requested for a more realistic version and the picture above is the result. cool
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