IMMIGRANT GAMES: Historical hot sellers invented abroad
David Patterson
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With immigration being such a hot topic these days, I though it might be fun to look back at how many of the best-known games enjoyed in the United States and Canada were invented elsewhere.

I'm not talking about Catan and the tsunami of Eurogames we've experienced since. This list focuses on titles that date back decades and even centuries before they were trotted out in the United States by Parker Brothers, Milton Bradley or other American publishers and became hits on this side of the ocean.

Feel free to add other titles, but please restrict your contributions to games that both have (or at least had) mass appeal and were published pre-1990.
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1. Board Game: La Conquête du Monde [Average Rating:6.62 Unranked]
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You might not recognize this title, but it was the inspiration for this list. It was published by Miro in France in 1957, but the rights were promptly snapped up by Parker Brothers. Two years later, this paradigm of dice-driven world conquest was ushered into the world as:



The title changed, as did the names of some of the territories, but the map outline, card designs and playing pieces remained identical.
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2. Board Game: Clue [Average Rating:5.66 Overall Rank:8031]
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Shortly after WWII, a fellow named Anthony Pratt of Birmingham, England, sold an idea for a murder mystery game to Waddington. It was published in the UK in 1949 as Cluedo.



It didn't take long for Parker Bros. to get into the act, removing the question mark, shortening the name to Clue, and changing the victim from Dr. Black to Mr. Boddy.
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3. Board Game: Stratego [Average Rating:6.07 Overall Rank:2331]
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This classic hidden-setup wargame has been popular for decades in North America and around the world. But it actually began life as the invention of Hermance Edan of France, who in 1909 was awarded a patent for a "jeu de bataille avec pièces mobiles sur damier".



Her game, L'Attaque, sold well enough in France that Gibson & Sons of the UK bought up the English-language rights sometime around WWI. They kept the original name for the infantry game, but over the next decade or so, they also published naval (Dover Patrol), aerial (Aviation) and combined-arms (Tri-Tactics) versions of the game. Gibson versions of L'Attaque were published as late as the 1970s, with a modified "Five Bridges" board.



By then, however, the game had moved to the Americas as Stratego, which continues to be published to this day. And while the name Stratego has become the global brand, it actually dates to a version published just after WWII by Dutch publisher Jumbo.

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4. Board Game: Asalto [Average Rating:5.38 Overall Rank:13915]
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This classic of asymmetric warfare pits 24 attacking pawns against two defenders of a castle. The attackers can only shuffle forward and try to infiltrate the castle, while the defenders can eliminate attackers by jumping over them and can move in any direction.



The earliest known versions appeared in Germany during the Napoleonic era, at which point it was called Belagerungsspiel or Festungsspiel (the "assault" or "fortress" game. The board layout has been published many times since with themes that range from the Napoleonic, Crimean and Franco-Prussian wars to the French invasion of tiny Madagascar in 1894.



The first English language version was published as The Game of Assault in the mid-1800s, and in 1895, Parker Brothers finally published an American version of the Grosse Belagerungsspiel (with 50 attackers against 3 defenders) as Hold the Fort.



There also have been versions with a wide variety of playing pieces, from the original hand-painted wooden soldiers to plastic ships, glass panzers and even space invaders.



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5. Board Game: Sorry! [Average Rating:4.50 Overall Rank:16275]
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This game took a Pachisi-like board and turned it into a much more interactive game, with movement determined by a deck of cards rather than dice, cards that allowed players to swap places with an opponent or even move backwards (potentially from start to just before the finish!), and slides to speed forward progress.



It was first published in 1929 by a company called BCM in London, England. The first edition came in three versions: one with a single deck of cards, a second with two decks of cards, and a third with an ultra-thick board, two card decks and a set of accessories to support a multi-table tournament.



It wasn't until five years later that Parker Brothers brought it to the United States, where it has been re-issued many times since.


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6. Board Game: The Mansion of Happiness [Average Rating:4.50 Unranked]
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This 1843 game is not a popular title these days, but it is worth mentioning for two reasons.

First, it is often wrongly credited as the first commercially produced board game in the United States. In fact, that honor belongs to Travellers' Tour Through the United States, published more than two decades earlier in 1822.



Secondly, in line with this list's theme, it was not an American game! It was a direct rip-off of a popular British game first published in 1800: Laurie & Whittle's New, Moral and Entertaining Game of the Mansion of Happiness. While the title was shortened and the layout of the board moved around, it is the same 67-space track toward heavenly reward.
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7. Board Game: Put & Take Game [Average Rating:4.13 Unranked]
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This has been a popular kid's game in the United States for decades. Players use a spinner to determine whether they must put tokens into the pot or get tokens back.



But it is a game that has much earlier roots. Identical spinners have been found in Europe dating at least to the 1800s. There, the spinner was used as a stand-alone game, with the purpose of adult gambling rather than juvenile amusement.
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8. Board Game: Chutes and Ladders [Average Rating:2.80 Overall Rank:16290]
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Generations of children have grown up with this roll-and-move game, which I always knew as Snakes and Ladders. Young players around the world have spent many hours shouting with glee when a ladder boosts them up the board, and whining dejectedly when forced to slide down a snake.



Boards have been published with countless themes, but the essence remains the same, and actually goes back to a more religiously themed game in India some two millennia ago.

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9. Board Game: Tiddledy Winks [Average Rating:3.85 Overall Rank:16250]
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This is another children's classic, where players use a large disc to propel smaller ones toward a target cup.



It was an instant hit when first published by John Jaques & Sons in the UK in 1888 - so much so that within a couple of years, the company was pasting a notice inside the lid of its boxes decrying its many unlicensed competitors.




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10. Board Game: Happy Families [Average Rating:4.71 Overall Rank:15978]
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Jaques was the most prolific publisher of games in Victorian England, and came up with this card game for the Great Exhibition. The game requires players to collect "families" of four cards by asking their opponents for matching cards.



Mr. Daub the Painter and his ilk quickly evolved into an entire family of card games with innumerable themes. The Game of Authors marked its introduction to the United States in 1863, differing only in the fact that each card included the names of the other three cards in its set.



The game sprawled across Europe as well, with the generic name of Quartett, and again with a multiplicity of themes.
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11. Board Game: Snap [Average Rating:3.39 Overall Rank:16213]
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Yet another Jaques card game was Snap, where players turn over cards simultaneously and try to capture their opponents' stacks by being the first to cry Snap! when two identical cards are revealed.



The Jaques first edition is notable for its illustrations by Sir John Tenniel, who also did the art for the first edition of Alice in Wonderland. It has been republished under dozens of names by close to 100 different publishers.
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12. Board Game: Trap the Cap [Average Rating:4.74 Overall Rank:16083]
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This variant on a roll-and-move where players try to capture their opponents' pieces by landing on top of them, is another children's staple to this day.



But it was first published in Germany by Otto Maier Verlag in 1927 under the name Fang den Hut, and has since been issued under various names by dozens of publishers around the world.
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13. Board Game: Carla Cat [Average Rating:5.78 Overall Rank:7913]
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Confusingly, the original German name of this game, Hasch Mich, has also been used for an edition of Trap the Cap.



This, however, is a dexterity game, where one player holds a cup and the others each hold a mouse playing piece by its string tail. The mice players can lose points both for yanking their mice away on a false alarm and for being too slow and getting caught when the first player slams the cup onto the table.
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14. Board Game: Lexicon [Average Rating:5.77 Overall Rank:11960]
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In this card game, players try to form cross words on the common table. As a word game, it was overtaken by Scrabble in the 1950s, but was very popular on both sides of the Atlantic in its day.



The first edition was published in the UK by Waddington in 1933, which followed up a couple of years later with a booklet listing 25 new variations of the game.
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15. Board Game: Pachisi [Average Rating:4.46 Overall Rank:16273]
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This roll your way around the board game is a classic in North America, but has its roots in India and spread across Europe before making its way to these shores.



It could be considered a public-domain game like chess or checkers, but has been published under many different guises over the years.



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16. Board Game: Mahjong [Average Rating:7.02 Overall Rank:649]
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Here's another game that is more public domain than proprietary.



However, this tile-laying set-collection game that originated in China became a North American craze in the 1920s, spawning numerous branded versions including this 1923 card-game version by Parker Brothers:


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17. Board Game: Labyrinth [Average Rating:6.38 Overall Rank:1466]
Mark Morrise
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This 1986 game was invented by Max J. Kobbert, a German game designer and professor of cognitive psychology. He is known for his series of Labyrinth board games. (BGG owned: 14,000)


Ravensburger 1988 English edition box front
 
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18. Board Game: Othello [Average Rating:6.07 Overall Rank:2460]
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This game was invented at the end of the 19th century; both Lewis Waterman and John W. Mollett (two Englishmen) claimed to be the inventors of the game. The first ever versions of the game were produced in 1882 by Waterman and Mollett themselves. It was patented in 1888 and published under the name Reversi in 1898. (BGG owned: 8,500)

 
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19. Board Game: Scotland Yard [Average Rating:6.51 Overall Rank:1093]
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This game was released by Ravensburger in 1983 and won the 1983 Spiel des Jahres. The game was the first SdJ winner – and indeed one of the first games ever – to have elements of cooperative and asymmetric play. Scotland Yard’s designers were the first all-German team to win the award. Dorothy Garrels was the first female designer to win.

Scotland Yard was created by a team of six: Manfred Burggraf, Dorothy Garrels, Wolf Hörmann, Fritz Ifland, Werner Scheerer, and Werner Schlegel. According to the SdJ retrospective, Schlegel assembled the team and served as its editorial director. Unfortunately, information discussing the other designers’ roles has not been published. None of the six are credited on BGG with ever designing another game. (BGG owned: 19,000)


Ravensburger Multilingual first edition 1983 before SdJ.
 
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20. Board Game: Hare & Tortoise [Average Rating:6.65 Overall Rank:1126]
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This 1979 Spiel des Jahres winner was invented by David Sidney Parlett, a British game designer and card game expert. As far as its mass appeal, its BGG entry lists 15 publishers, including some American publishers.


Rio Grande Games edition

 
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