Six Frigates - The Early American Navy
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I just finished reading the book Six Frigates by Ian Toll, about the founding and early history of the US Navy, through the conclusion of the War of 1812. It was a fascinating read, and for me informative; I am by no means an expert on naval history.

So it has inspired this geeklist.
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1. Board Game: 1776 [Average Rating:6.46 Overall Rank:2610]
Wendell
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During the American Revolution, there was a Continental Navy. It accomplished little, John Paul Jones notwithstanding, and after independence was secured Congress auctioned off the last ship in 1785. The new United States of America had no navy.
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2. Board Game: Die Hanse [Average Rating:5.68 Overall Rank:10987]
 
Wendell
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The wars of the French Revolution began to heat up in the early 1790s. American merchants did well, shipping goods to both sides and operating throughout the Atlantic and Mediterranean. But neither the British nor French were happy about this, and they occasionally seized American ships on the pretext of preventing contraband from reaching the enemy.

But all in all it was a very lucrative time to be the owner or captain of an American merchant vessel. War is hell - and profitable for some!
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3. Board Game: Corsair! [Average Rating:6.00 Unranked]
Wendell
United States
Yellow Springs
Ohio
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But the real shock was in late 1793, when the Dey of Algiers reached a truce with Portugal - mediated by Britain. In the mid-1780s American shipping and that of other lesser maritime powers had been harassed by officially condoned pirates from Morocco and Algeria. But Portugal had quashed such activity for a period.

When Algiers made the truce, their corsairs were again unleashed. In October 1793 they captured several American merchant ships, imprisoning over 100 of their crew.

Congress debated how to respond. Federalists (generally from New England, the seat of America's maritime industry) wanted a big navy, pronto. Republicans (generally from the southern states and not the same party as today's Republican Party) were dubious about the cost.

But Congress in March 1794 passed an act authorizing the construction of six frigates.
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4. Board Game: Frigates! [Average Rating:5.67 Unranked]
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Congress had authorized six frigates, coming up with the generous sum of $688,000. The US decided to build them rather than buy them, in order to learn the craft of building warships. The first Secretary of the Navy, Henry Knox, tapped a Philadelphia Quaker, Joshua Humphreys, to design and oversee their construction. Humphreys knew the US could not match the big European navies, and decided to emphasize speed and firepower - he wanted frigates with the firepower to defeat their counterparts, and with the speed to evade enemy ships-of-the-line. His frigates proved to have much greater structural strength than other frigates, with generally good speed. And they packed more and bigger guns than other frigates of the time. And the copper sheeting for their hulls was provided by Paul Revere of "the British are coming" fame.

Eventually, six frigates designed by Humphreys were built: Constitution, President, United States, Chesapeake, Constellation, and Congress. The United States was the first one to be launched, in May 1797.

In March 1796, as construction of the frigates slowly progressed, the US and Algiers made a deal that ended the war in exchange for payments from the US - a typical arrangement for the Algerians. That temporarily halted construction of the six frigates, but at President Washington's urging, Congress agreed to fund the construction of the three ships nearest to completion.
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5. Board Game: Wooden Ships & Iron Men [Average Rating:7.01 Overall Rank:1043]
Wendell
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Ohio
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But the first real naval war for the US frigates wasn't against Algiers - the US and Algiers made a deal in 1796, before the first new frigate was even launched. Instead, it was in the West Indies against the French.

American and French relations had deteriorated sharply, particularly after the US and Britain concluded the Jay Treaty. French privateers and warships began seizing American ships on the high seas. President John Adams sent a diplomatic mission to France to try to resolve tensions, but talks never got off the ground when the French demanded bribes to even talk (the XYZ Affair). Outraged, Congress repealed the French treaty in July 1798. That marked the beginning of the Quasi War.

The fledgling US Navy acquitted itself well against the French, although the US lost 2000 merchant vessels. The war finally ended in 1800, when Bonaparte rose to power and the French decided having a hostile America was pointless.
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6. Board Game: Barbary Coast War [Average Rating:2.00 Unranked]
Wendell
United States
Yellow Springs
Ohio
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In 1801, a new threat arose, from the city-state of Tripoli. The Pasha of Tripoli demanded $225,000 from the new President, Thomas Jefferson. Jefferson refused - he had long opposed paying off the Barbary Pirates, at one stage had even proposed a naval alliance of various powers to check the pirates. The US was at war again.

Jefferson sent frigates to defend American shipping in the Mediterranean. In 1803 the US blockaded Tripoli. In 1805, US Marines and mercenaries invaded Tripolitanian territory from Egypt. Finally, in 1805 Tripoli's ruler grew tired of the blockade and signed a treaty ending the war.
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7. Board Game: War of 1812 [Average Rating:6.78 Overall Rank:9766]
Wendell
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Ohio
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With the Barbary Pirate threat ended for the time, American ships again made a killing trading with both belligerents as the Napoleonic Wars raged. But both Britain and France placed greater restrictions on neutral shipping, mostly aimed at the Americans.

In addition, the Royal Navy, strapped for men, grew more aggressive in pressing sailors off of American merchant ships into the Royal Navy. Many captains weren't bothered to determine whether the men in question were Royal Navy deserters or not, or even whether they were American or British.

Relations deteriorated, and eventually the United States declared war on Britain - ironically, after Parliament had lifted some of the onerous trade restrictions. But news of that didn't reach Washington until after Congress had declared war, and impressment was still a bone of contention.

The US invaded Canada, dreaming of claiming that possession. The land war for the US went poorly (except for the Battle of New Orleans, fought after peace was made).

The naval war, despite the gross imbalance between the Royal Navy and the US Navy, went better. See entries for each of the six frigates below, but American warships and privateers wreaked havoc on British merchant shipping. Insurance rates in London for shipping rose astronomically. The Duke of Wellington himself complained acidly about the Royal Navy's inability to assure supplies to his armies fighting in Spain.

And the fledgling US Navy inflicted the first losses in a more-or-less even fight on the Royal Navy in over a decade.

By the end of the war, all six frigates had been either captured or blockaded. But their very presence required the British to expend a great deal of effort to blockade them, and there were enough smaller American vessels preying on British merchant shipping - even in British home waters - that the British realized the war wasn't worth the effort. During protracted peace negotiations, the realistic Wellington, asked to lead an army in Canada, declined, and said:

"I think you have no right, from the state of war, to demand any concession of territory from America... You have not been able to carry it into the enemy's territory, notwithstanding your military success and now undoubted military superiority, and have not even cleared your own territory on the point of attack. you can not on any principle of equality in negotiation claim a cessation of territory except in exchange for other advantages which you have in your power... Then if this reasoning be true, why stipulate for the uti possidetis? You can get no territory: indeed, the state of your military operations, however creditable, does not entitle you to demand any."

The Treaty of Ghent ended the war; no territory changed hands. The British refused to make concessions on impressment, but with the end of the Napoleonic Wars alleviating the Royal Navy's manpower shortage, that was no longer a concern.
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8. Board Game: Monopoly: United States Navy [Average Rating:4.98 Unranked]
Wendell
United States
Yellow Springs
Ohio
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The 44-gun United States was first active frigate, launched in Philadelphia in May 1797. After serving in the Med during the war with the Barbary Pirates, and enduring a period in dry-dock, it acquitted itself well in the War of 1812. In October 1812, captained by Stephen Decatur, a hero from the Tripoli war, the United States captured the HMS Macedonian south of the Azores. Its firepower was too great for the 38-gun British frigate.

The United States subsequently spent much of the war blockaded in New London, Connecticut. Later on it served in the Mediterranean during the second war with Algeria. It cruised in the Pacific in the 1840s, then spent time off the coast of Africa combating illegal slave trade. It was seized by the Confederates in 1861 (it has been in ordinary, i.e. dry-dock) in Norfolk, was scuttled, raised by the Union, but eventually broken up in 1865.
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9. Board Game: Constellation [Average Rating:5.68 Overall Rank:12293]
Wendell
United States
Yellow Springs
Ohio
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The 44-gun Constellation was launched in Baltimore in September 1797. In February 1799 it defeated and captured the French frigate L'Insurgente - the first major victory for one of Humphreys' frigates. It also defeated La Vengeance in 1800, after which the French nicknamed it the "Yankee Racehorse" for its power and speed.

The Constellation fought against Tripoli, then spent the War of 1812 blockaded in the Chesapeake. It cruised around the world in the 1840s and was the first US warship to enter China's inland waters. It was broken up in 1853.


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10. Board Game: Survivor [Average Rating:4.04 Overall Rank:15169]
Wendell
United States
Yellow Springs
Ohio
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The Constitution, rated at 44 guns, was built in Boston and launched on 21 October 1797. Her first duty was protecting American shipping during the Quasi War, and it was in the Mediterranean for the first Barbary War, providing support for the Marines when they attacked Derne in Tripoli.

But its name was made during the War of 1812. Upon sailing in July 1812, the Constitution encountered a British squadron of five warships, Prudently (and by the book - the US frigates were ordered to avoid combat against superior forces) the Constitution evaded. But in August, the Constitution encountered the British frigate Guerriere again, this time without the other four warships. The Constitution pounded the Guerriere into submission. This was the first Royal Navy defeat in a (more or less) even fight in over a decade. It was in this battle that the Constitution earned the name "Old Ironsides" after British shots bounced harmlessly off its deck.

The Constitution went on to capture the Java, Cyane, and Levant, and ended the war blockaded in Boston.

The Constitution is still around today, the oldest commissioned warship still afloat (Nelson's older flagship HMS Victory is in permanent dry dock). After serving in the Mediterranean and African squadrons and circumnavigating the world in the 1840s, she was a training vessel for the US Naval Academy during the Civil War. Retired from active duty in 1881, she was restored in 1925 and after a long time in dock, the Constitution sailed under her own power in 1997 for her two-hundredth birthday.
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11. Board Game: Frigate [Average Rating:5.83 Overall Rank:11176] [Average Rating:5.83 Unranked]
Wendell
United States
Yellow Springs
Ohio
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The Chesapeake was launched in December 1799. According to Humphreys' design, it was supposed to be a 44-gun frigate, but the builder Josiah Fox made his own changes, and it ended up as a 38-gun. It served during the Quasi War and in the Mediterranean.

In Six Frigates, Toll writes that the Chesapeake was considered ill-fated by superstitious sailors. They were right. On 22 June 1807, HMS Leopard fired on the Chesapeake for refusing to allow the Leopard to board it and check for British deserters on board. The Chesapeake was outgunned; having barely begun its voyage, it was also ill-prepared. Having managed to fire one shot, it struck its colors, and four deserters from the Royal Navy were taken away.

In June 1813, captain James Lawrence rashly chose to engage HMS Shannon. The US Navy, vastly outnumbered, couldn't risk its frigates in one-on-one duels - and Shannon was a well-run ship. After a sharp battle in which Lawrence, dying, said "don't give up the ship", the Chesapeake was captured. After serving in the Royal Navy, she was broken up in 1820.
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12. Board Game: Plunder [Average Rating:6.17 Overall Rank:3903]
Wendell
United States
Yellow Springs
Ohio
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The 36-gun Congress was launched in August 1799. She fought in the Quasi War and against pirates in the Mediterranean.

In the War of 1812 she captured four small British ships off of the Brazilian coast, and was subsequently blockaded in Norfolk. After the war Congress was on anti-pirate duty in the Caribbean. Eventually laid up in ordinary, Congress was found unfit for duty and broken up in 1834.
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13. Board Game: President [Average Rating:4.25 Unranked]
Wendell
United States
Yellow Springs
Ohio
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The 44-gun President was launched in New York in 1800. She served in the First Barbary War.

After cruising in the North Atlantic, West Indies, and off the Brazilian coast during the war of 1812, under Captain Stephen Decatur she was captured by the HMS Endymion and two other warships in January 1815 - after the conclusion of the war. (No radio!) She was taken into the Royal Navy, eventually renamed HMS Piedmontaise, and broken up at Portsmouth, England, in June 1818.
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14. Board Game: Serpents of the Seas [Average Rating:7.68 Overall Rank:3624] [Average Rating:7.68 Unranked]
Paul Aceto
United States
Fairfax
Virginia
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Good lord, Wendell, how could you have left this one out? I guess you've lost your touch since our FSI Econ course days...

Of course, this still isn't out yet.

Here's the GMT description:

Serpents of the Seas is the second volume in the Flying Colors series of naval combat games, and represents frigate actions and the rise of the American Navy. Unlike the larger battles between ships of the line depicted in Flying Colors, Serpents of the Seas includes sixteen battles from the American Revolutionary era and the War of 1812 that involve smaller ships -- from tiny gunboats with only one or two cannon through “5th Rate” frigates of less than 50 guns. Also depicted are three dozen “Ship Duels” between one or two vessels on a side, like the mighty Constitution (“Old Ironsides”) against her foes Java and Guerriere. To make these duels more challenging, an all new initiative system has been created using activation cards that might grant players a jump on their opponents, but limit their flexibility in the process. The cards can also be used as events that provide additional shipboard flavor. These new systems are fully compatible with the original Flying Colors game, with mechanics that can be selected a la carte.



Paul A.
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15. Board Game: Captain's Sea [Average Rating:7.25 Unranked]
Hawkeye
United States
Astoria
New York
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I think this will be the definitive game for simulating the small ship to ship actions described in the book.

In development at Legion Wargames and ready to go to print when it hits 250 orders ...

http://www.legionwargames.com/legion_CAP.html
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16. Board Game: Sails of Glory Special Ship Pack: USS Constitution [Average Rating:8.00 Unranked] [Average Rating:8.00 Unranked]
Andrea Angiolino
Italy
Rome
European Union
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USS Constitution for Sails of Glory has finally been released.
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