Ways some games try to lessen starting-player advantage.
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In most games, whether two-player or multiplayer, the first player to move will have an advantage.

This is a simple GeekList to compile some ways that various games try to lessen the advantage that a starting player might have.

Please feel free to add new entries that illustrate a DIFFERENT RULE.

If you want to add other games that feature identical or very similar rules to the ones on the list, please add them as comments under the existing entries.
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1. Board Game: The Dots-and-Boxes Game: Sophisticated Child's Play [Average Rating:6.07 Unranked]
 
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SECOND PLAYER WINS ALL TIES


In Dots and Boxes, all ties are awarded to the second player, to offset the advantage of going first.
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2. Board Game: Twixt [Average Rating:6.59 Overall Rank:1535]
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SECOND PLAYER MAY SWAP SIDES

"After Red places the first peg on the board, the opponent has the option to
either respond normally as Black, or swap sides. If sides are swapped, the
player who moved first as Red is now Black, and makes the next move."

Another example:
The rule is carried over into the game Ponte del Diavolo, where the first player places both color of pieces and the second player has a choice as to which color to continue with on his opening move.

I heard some players use a version of this rule in Chess. Can anyone confirm?
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3. Board Game: DVONN [Average Rating:7.44 Overall Rank:346] [Average Rating:7.44 Unranked]
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FIRST PLACEMENT vs. FIRST MOVE

In Dvonn, the game begins with a placement face, where Black will place his first ring and thus have the initiative in setting up a favorable structure for himself in the movement phase.

To offset this, the player who plays White will make the first move in the movement phase.
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4. Board Game: Magic: The Gathering [Average Rating:7.45 Overall Rank:156] [Average Rating:7.45 Unranked]
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EXTRA CARD or CARDS

In Magic: The Gathering, the second player to play draws an additional card to begin his first turn. Thus, the first player will begin the game with 7 cards, the second with 8.
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5. Board Game: San Juan [Average Rating:7.28 Overall Rank:228]
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FOLLOWING PLAYERS HAVE BETTER SELECTION OF CARDS

Distinct from the "extra card" rule in Magic: the Gathering. In San Juan, all players must begin with a 4-card hand. But to mitigate starting-player advantage, the following rule is implemented:

The first player draws a hand of 5 cards, discarding one.
The second player draws a hand of 6 cards, discarding two.
The third player draws a hand of 7 cards, discarding three.
The fourth player draws a hand of 8 cards, discarding four.

Thus, each player after the first will have a greater chance of making a "better" hand, although no one's hand will be numerically greater.
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6. Board Game: Through the Desert [Average Rating:7.05 Overall Rank:435]
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FIRST PLAYER HAS HALF A MOVE

In Through the Desert, an ordinary turn consists of placing two camel pieces.

However, during the game's first turn, the first two players are only allowed to place one camel. This half-move is there to ensure that the opening players cannot build too great an early advantage.

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7. Board Game: La Città [Average Rating:7.09 Overall Rank:553]
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"SNAKE DRAFT"

As in fantasy sports drafts, the first round of movements goes clockwise around the table, the second goes counterclockwise.

In "La Citta", the first player has a free choice of where to place his city, then his opponents place their first cities in clockwise order. Then, beginning with the last player to place a city, that player immediately places his SECOND city, and the other players place their second cities in counter-clockwise order.

Therefore, the first player to place his first city will be the last to place his second city.

In La Citta, the first player also immediately surrenders the Start Player marker when the placement round is over, ensuring that he is last to act in the first action round of the game.
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8. Board Game: Caylus [Average Rating:7.83 Overall Rank:45]
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EXTRA RESOURCES

(often money, but could be food or something else)

Players get different amounts of starting money based on initial turn order. 5, 6, 6, 7, 7 if I recall correctly.

This method -- extra resources based on later turn order occurs in quite a number of games. Another example would be Age of Empires III: The Age of Discovery.

[edit was to change title to "EXTRA RESOURCES" from "EXTRA MONEY" and add the often money... bit]
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9. Board Game: Go [Average Rating:7.66 Overall Rank:121]
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BONUS TO SCORE

The 2nd player (white) gets some number of points added to their score at the end of the game. These added points are called komi. The proper value for komi is under ongoing debate, with values between 5.5 and 8 being the usual range.
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10. Board Game: The Princes of Machu Picchu [Average Rating:7.00 Overall Rank:1071]
Zé Mário
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The first player begins at level 0 in the inca trail. The second on level 1, etc...
 
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11. Board Game: Through the Ages: A Story of Civilization [Average Rating:8.03 Overall Rank:26]
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EXTRA ACTION POINTS

In Through the Ages, there is a special first round where players can only draft cards, and the card costs don't get reduced as the draft happens. Cards can cost 1, 2, or 3 points to take. Starting with first player, each player gets 1, 2, 3, or 4 action points to take cards depending on their order. So, this can mean either more cards, or a larger selection of cards to choose from, but the later players are selecting from the cards not chosen by earlier players.

(This is similar to a couple others, but also a bit different.)
 
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12. Board Game: Puerto Rico [Average Rating:8.06 Overall Rank:15]
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Indigo/Corn plantations
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13. Board Game: Scarab Lords [Average Rating:6.05 Overall Rank:3052] [Average Rating:6.05 Unranked]
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The normal sequence is:

1) Play any number of phase "0" cards.
2) Play up to one phase "1" card.
3) Play up to one phase "2" card.
4) Supremacy phase.

The starting player can only do two of these phases.
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14. Board Game: Doubles Wild [Average Rating:6.03 Overall Rank:10358]
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Rule: Choosing not to act

In Doubles Wild, you roll for disputed spots, and the second person has the choice to roll or not, after seeing what the aggressor has rolled.
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15. Board Game: Dungeon Twister [Average Rating:6.84 Overall Rank:762]
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PROGRESSIVE NUMBER OF ACTIONS

For the first turn, the first player MUST use 2 action, and the second player can use his 2 or 3 Actions card, if the second players choose 3 actions, then the first player can play 3 or 4 actions, and so on...
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16. Board Game: Cavum [Average Rating:6.74 Overall Rank:1573]
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AUCTIONS

First place is determined by victory points auction, so the first player starts with less VPs.
 
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17. Board Game: The Princes of Florence [Average Rating:7.57 Overall Rank:116]
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ROTATING FIRST PLAYER

In this game, and many others, first player rotates around the table each turn giving each person a chance at first player advantage (or last player advantage) depending on which is most valuable in the particular game.

Another game with this mechanism is Amyitis, but there are many others.
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18. Board Game: Gipsy King [Average Rating:6.59 Overall Rank:2574]
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INVERSED PLAYER ORDER

The game is played in two phases, in the second phase the player order is inversed.
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19. Board Game: Dragonland [Average Rating:6.33 Overall Rank:2780]
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HEAD START

The first player places one of his pawns on the first space from an entrance, the second player places his on the second space (from the same or another entrance), and so on.
 
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20. Board Game: Manoeuvre [Average Rating:7.32 Overall Rank:639]
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FIELD OF PLAY

Maneouvre uses a complicated series of choices to define the field of play before the game starts that tries to balance first-player advantage. If I recall correctly, the sequence is:

First player chooses and sets up terrain. (2x2 grid of terrain map chunks).
Second player chooses which side they enter from.
Second player chooses the two armies being used.
First player chooses which army to control.
First player sets up units.
Second player then sets up units.
First player takes first turn.
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21. Board Game: Serenissima (first edition) [Average Rating:6.87 Overall Rank:1100]
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Blind Bidding


Here, playing first isn't always best (sometimes, often really, it is better to be last) but I guess this still qualifies.

At the beginning of each round, players make a secret bid to choose their position.


I know some people use a kind of auction for Vinci at the beginning of the game. (edit: Vinci in section 18)
 
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22. Board Game: Hexade [Average Rating:6.83 Unranked]
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RESTRICTIONS ON SUBSEQUENT MOVE(S)

In Hexade, players take turns placing stones on the board in an attempt to complete one of three winning configurations. There is an inherent advantage to going first in such games. But here, the first player's second stone must be placed at least three cells away from his first stone.
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23. Board Game: Renju [Average Rating:6.21 Overall Rank:8860]
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RESTRICTIONS ON VICTORY CONDITIONS

Renju is another game in which players alternate placing stones trying to create a particular configuration, in this case five-in-a-row. Renju also features a version of the pie rule, discussed in entry #2. And, it has placement restrictions for certain moves, as in the previous entry. However, that's not enough! (My source is http://www.gamerz.net/pbmserv/renju.html) Black (the first player) is also not allowed to win by making an "overline" (more than five stones in a row), while White is. Black also cannot create a "double three" or a "double four".
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24. Board Game: IceTowers [Average Rating:6.44 Overall Rank:4405]
Timothy Hunt
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Don't have a first player.
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25. Board Game: Risk 2210 A.D. [Average Rating:6.71 Overall Rank:1019]
Andres F. Pabon L.
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This one doesn't exactly cope with the starting player advantage... but it makes players fight for the privilege of choosing the turn number they want.

Going first is not always an advantage...
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