The only restriction on any card in the game is if the ship has an icon that matches the icon on the card.
... except as noted above (various limitations of "___ only").
Upgrade cards are a special case in that they can be placed on any ship (but each ship can only have one).
I think you mean "Modification" cards, because all upgrades are upgrades. In addition to a Modification, a ship can have one "Title." Oddly, both Modifications and Titles lack a symbol in the corner (I guess because the ship you put them on doesn't need a particular slot to hold it).
Let's try not to muddy the waters.