Hey Brian, do you design the badges yourself? How do you get them submitted/approved?
(Nice job btw)
Most of the ones I have made I have either scanned from actual pieces or cut them from the companies' posted files - like the images or pdf's. I use Photoshop to crop them and the MyCoolIconStudio to convert them to 16x16 images. I might have to do a little touch-up to make some things more clear.
As far as submitting them, it is a very informal process right now. Look for the latest microbadge thread and post your ideas. When an admin gets around to it, and likes it, they are then posted in the "buy microbadges" section. I think the latest thread is here - http://www.boardgamegeek.com/thread/130746 - though I might be wrong since I haven't kept an eye on it.
(BTW, for WotR, I used the Political markers for each nation, and the control marker for the free and shadow armies. Originally, I used the straight diamond shape but it was too hard to differentiate the nations. I then went with a circle crop of just the images and was able to pull out a bit more detail and was satisfied with what finally got approved).