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Subject: How to make an airplane turn... rss

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J.D. Webster
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Here's a quick example.

How to turn an airplane...

Assumption...Wildcat F4F-4 (get the ADC)....
Assumption...Speed 6.0 (= 300mph), altitude 15.0 (15,000)
Start attitude level flight, wings level.

Start hex 2825 facing West (W) (along the hexgrain).

Step 1: Note that 15,000 (level 15.0) is part of the ML altitude band as shown on the left edge of the Aircraft performance chart on the F4F card...

On that chart slide right along the ML band row to note the various speed numbers on the card.

Min speed = 2.0
Max speed = 6.0
Max safe dive = 10.0

Those are your three "limit" speeds.

The next set of speeds are your minimum required speeds for turning. There are four columns labeled TT, HT, BT and ET.
Each corrosponds to an allowed turn rate.

There are actually five turn rates in the game.

EZ (easy turn) = less than 2g

TT (tight turn) = about 2g

HT (hard turn) = about 3-4g

BT (break turn) = about 5-6g

ET (emergency turn) = 7+ gees.

EZ turning is allowed anytime you at or higher than your minimum speed. In this case 2.0 for the ML band. All other turn rates require that you be at or above the listed speed in that turn rate column.

Thus: in the ML band TT requires a speed of 3.0 or more, and BT turns require a speed of 5.0 or more.

Now you know how to read the "performance line" of the game card. Let us now actually move through a turn.

To turn - the airplane must be banked. Banking or rolling takes time - expressed in terms of FPs expended.

Look to the Power vs Speed chart on the F4f data card.
Look for the row that says "bank FPs". This row, cross indexed with your speed column on that chart gives you the time it takes to bank one step. In this case cross index bank fps with Speed column "5.0-7.5".

The result is 2, meaning 2 Fps to bank one step.

Move the airplane 2 hexes. Advancing one hex costs 1 FP.

When you reach hex 2823, you have spent two FPs and moved two hexes and simultaneously satisfied the bank FPs requirement. Your plane is now banked (assume left bank).

Now you can start turning. Depending on the turn rate selected, and with a speed of 6.0 in the ML band, the wildcat can use any of the listed turn rates, the turn circle will be wider or tighter.

You have 4 FPs left to play in your move. To plan your turning, look at the "Turn Rate Chart" in the play aids page 1 top of page. This chart lists all five turn rates.

Cross index your current speed (6.0) with the various turn rates to find how many FPs must be spent in movement before making a facing change. observe that at speed 6.0-6.5 an HT turn takes 3 FPs and a BT turn takes 2 FPs. With four FPs left to play you could still accomplish two facing changes in the game during the move.

Advance the Aircraft to hex 2821, expending two more HFPs in the process and simultaneously satisfying the BT rate turn requirement of 2. Change the counter's facing left 30 degrees to SW. Your aircraft is in hex 2821 but pointed at the hexside that separates hex 2720 and 2820.

Expend your last 2 HFPs to move as follows. One to advance onto hexside 2720/2820, and the last to enter hex 2719. You have now satisfied the BT turn requirement of 2 again so you can change facing to SSE in hex 2719. This will leave you pointed at hex 2619.

there - easy as pie. You had a speed of six, you spent six movement points. two to bank, while advancing two hexes, and two to BT to SE while advancin two hexes still headed west. And the last two to BT to SSE while stil headed SW.

The actual facing change is allowed once you meet the minimum distance required by your declared turn rate at your original heading.

Gee hope that made sense.

JD


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Li'l Ronnie Post
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Does it make me a geek that I think this is pretty danged interesting?
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J.D. Webster
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Actually - it makes ME the geek because I designed a game where each plane's wing loading will actually make for a different level of performance which is depicted by airplanes having different numbers in their performance charts.

The amount of work I do to create a single AC card is largely underappreciated! ;-)

JD
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Yves Rettel
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thanks, I was getting confused about my planes turning and banking in all directions without moving a hex. ;-)
now it's all clear.
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J.D. Webster
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I wonder if this is a common point of confusion since there are many games that charge movement points to accomplish turning. In this case its a measure of time and the airplane is still moving forward as the time passes.

JD
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Kenneth Lury
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I am a complete newbie, but shouldn't the plane end up facing SSW rather than SSE ?
 
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