In explaining the rules, I found it useful to have a term for the dice in the center. I called them common dice, to indicated they are shared.
So mining dice + neutronium die = common dice
Then you can explain that you pair your rig die with a common die.
Perhaps use this term in the next rules revision?
The clear ones are actually called "standard dice" per the rulebook.
I believe all three are referred to as representing the environmental conditions, so I'd call them environment dice if I wanted a thematic term.
I've just called them global dice when explaining the game in the past, but common dice is nice too.