The rules simply say "Every time you carry out an action [...] you receive the patron's bonus". Is it "you must receive" or "you can receive"?
A real life example is with C. Sulla Felix (for instance). Maybe I do not want to progress at this particular moment in the Colosseum because it gives me nothing and it can benefit other players because I would occupy a space that they cannot afford to pay...
Of course optional. But for example there is no reason to skip getting more resource, etc. But sure, you can decide not using a bonus.