Here are the measurements and counts for the base game cards and tiles components. Reference when shopping for card sleeves.
Notes: * Phase and Fleet cards are the same size. Large (76 x 101 mm). 12 Total. * Exploration, Trade Agreement, and Turn Order cards are the same size. Medium (63 x 89 mm). 79 Total. * Research Advancement cards are Small (50 x 74 mm). 45 Total.
As suggested in another thread, I picked up the Mayday 50mmx75mm ("Sails of Glory compatible") sleeves for the oddball Advancements cards. They fit perfectly.
I had FFG standard silver sleeves handy, and those work just fine for the Exploration cards. They have the typical FFG long length at the top (people who like perfect length might be irked) but they are also just a tad bit wide, too. Not enough that the cards shift around, but it's not as close a fit as my other games.