Shooting down on someone adjacent? Shooting up at someone adjacent? Shooting down at someone diagonal and to the left 1 space? Shooting up at someone across the street?
1. A character on elevated terrain is not adjacent to someone on lower terrain; ranged attacks are allowed on any character that is not adjacent. There is no additional benefit or cost. 2. Ranged attacks from lower terrain to elevated terrain add 2 spaces to the distance when calculating damage. 3. That would be a ranged attack at distance 2. 4. See answer to #2.