Do you know a simple way to "convert" a svg file to a psd file? (where each element remains editable, even if it is rasterized) The easiest way to lay out vectors in Photoshop would be to save each piece as a separate Encapsulated PostScript (EPS) file. Then File > Place... (or just drag in) the EPS files to Photoshop. (As opposed to importing the pieces as "smart objects.")
You would have to open the original SVGs in Illustrator or Inkscape, copy+paste the pieces you want in to new documents, and then save those as EPS. Assuming you can re-do the fonts in Photoshop, you would only need to save EPSs of the 4 suit symbols and whatever you wanted from the face cards.
Any actual manipulation of the shapes would be done in Illustrator/Inkscape before saving the EPS.