In phase 17 when provinces and cities are assigned, are the amount of pieces in the PROVINCE (i.e. province excluding city) determinative for who controls the province or the amount of pieces in the province and its cities? For example, if there are three Reformed pieces in the city of Koln and three Catholic pieces in the countryside of Koln, does this mean that the Reformers control the city of Koln but not the province and that the Catholics control the province or that the Reformers control the city but not the province? If the Catholics would put their three pieces in the city of Koln, would that mean that neither the Reformers nor the Catholics control the city or the province, i.e. noone controls anything?
Thanks for clarifying.
Province control is determined by the units in towns and the countryside, not the units in cities. Assuming your examples are Turn 0 (only 6 units in the province of Koln), the Reformers would control the city of Koln (3-0 city units) and the Catholics would control the province of Koln (3-0 PROVINCE units). If the Catholics had their units in the city (or similarly, the Reformers had theirs in the PROVINCE), then neither the city nor province of Koln would be controlled by a player faction - they would both remain uncontrolled.