The way I understand it, a Carrier can strike a fleet or air unit in any port or coastal hex as long as there is a Surprise attack marker in the sea zone that they are in.
So if the carrier is in sea zone 1 they could attack in sea zone 30 if there is a surprise attack marker in sea zone 30 ?
It seems so far away from the action to be able to attack.
The Pearl Harbor strike took about two weeks from Japan across the Pacific.
Not sure how that equates to your example, don't have the time to check. However, this is also a matter of rules simplicity. Given a such a strike can travel a long distance and it's very expensive from a production standpoint, I was not too concerned if the range was a bit exaggerated.