It's been awhile since I played, but here's how I handled 1 and 2:
1. I only consider human tech from past battles.
2. I buy a tech for the AP each time it's rolled - otherwise it would be very hard for them to get higher levels of a given tech.
Thanks for your answers. Also I was wondering, when it says to subtract -2 from a fleet launch role if Ap has researched cloaking, fighters' etc, does that mean subtract from the roll you actually make, or subtract from the role listed on the AP economic sheet?