let's say I have a blue card that gives me benefits every time any player place the city on the map. Once I have passed, can I still benefit from it if other players build the city in this generation?
Thanks is advance
yes, it's a "passive" effect. Triggers every time the conditions are fullfilled. It's not an action.
It goes so far as to having arctic algae still activate if one of the players chooses to add an ocean during the Solar Phase (Venus Next/quicker play rules)