David Gruenbaum
United States
VA - Virginia
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This game has great potential, although it is almost forty years old! The components are pretty well done for the time. The map is fairly detailed and acceptably accurate. The units are all color-coded for their command assignment, and while not easy to read because of the small type, are legible. However, despite the color-coding, the command assignments really do not play a role in the area where they could prove useful: an interactive sequence of play.

There were no "interactive" games in 1980, to my recollection, so Mr. Goldberg can't be faulted on not having come up with the concept, but now, with so many Eastern Front games which have interactivity available, it is possible to retro-fit an interactive sequence to Kursk. We two retired Army Armor officers have come up with the following revised rules for Kursk. We would welcome any feedback from anyone who may try them, as to any changes or revisions that you think might help make this a more playable game.

KURSK (Revised Eric Goldberg’s KURSK Sequence of Play based on the Air & Armor and FLASHPOINT GOLAN game systems by D. Gruenbaum with assistance from M. Woodgerd)

A. JOINT AIR WARFARE PHASE (Both Players Simultaneously)
Both players separately and secretly write on a piece of paper their Air Warfare decision, either Initiate Air Warfare, Turn # (with the appropriate turn number), or No Air Warfare. Then both players simultaneously reveal their decision document. If the player possessing the Overall Initiative in the previous turn has decided to Initiate Air Warfare, the Air Warfare resolution proceeds as set in the basic rules. If that player has decided No Air Warfare, and the other player decided to Initiate Air Warfare, the resolution proceeds on that basis with the other player attempting any interceptions. Air Points may be used in Air Warfare, or to cause column shifts in combat, or each Air Point may be applied as a +1 Die Roll Modifier (DRM) to an Activation Determination Segment die roll (in an attempt to win the Phasing Player Initiative).

B. JOINT ADMINISTRATIVE PHASE (Both Players Simultaneously)

B.1. Reinforcements/Reserves Segment: Both players separately place their reinforcements scheduled to arrive in the Game Turn on the map. The Soviet Player may voluntarily activate reserve Formations not triggered by German action, at a cost of one VP deduction per Formation.

B.2. Red Army Modes: The Soviet Army Player chooses which mode for each army for the entire Game Turn, and places the appropriate mode marker (if in the Static or Assault mode; Mobile Mode is the default mode) on each army HQ; once all army HQs are marked, the Soviet player then places a marker with a number (1 through 7) face down on each Front HQ box (or one marker collectively for the four armies in the Independent Armies of the lower lefthand corner) on the Organization Chart, indicating the activation order of each front as the Soviet player gains the opportunity to Activate a Front. (The Red Army had a longer and more detailed planning cycle, and a slower reaction time in conducting operations). Soviet Infantry Rifle Corps may breakdown into three Infantry Divisions [14.31]; two or three infantry divisions may recombine into a Rifle Corps [14.35].

B.3. Partisans: The Soviet Player may place partisan units, either previously eliminated or due to appear, on the map. Previously inoperative partisan units become operative.

B.4. Das Heer Modes: The German Player chooses which mode to place each corps for the entire Game Turn, and places the appropriate mode marker (if in the Static or Assault mode; Mobile Mode is the default) on each corps HQ. German four-Step infantry divisions may breakdown into two KG units [14.11], and two KGs may recombine into an infantry division [14.2].

B.5. Overall Initiative Determination: After the first Game Turn, in which the Initiative Player for the scenario is specified, in succeeding game turns both players roll one die; the high die roll wins the Overall Initiative for the entire Game Turn. Die Roll Modifiers vary according to scenario.
Von Manstein’s Plan Scenario, May 1943: The German Player has the Overall Initiative on the first Game Turn and adds two to the Activation die rolls; on Turns 2 and 3 the German Player adds one to the Initiative die rolls and Activation die rolls; and gets no bonus subsequently except that the German player wins all ties.
Hitler’s Plan Scenario, July 1943: The German Player has the Overall Initiative on the first Game Turn only (the Soviets knew the attack was coming but chose to just conduct artillery barrages at 0400 the morning of the attack, and wait in the prepared defenses) and adds one to his/her Initiative and Activation die rolls, and wins on ties.
Soviet Summer Counter-Offensive Scenario, August 1943: The Soviet Player has the Overall Initiative on the first Game Turn and adds one to the Initiative and Activation die rolls, but the German Player wins all ties (reflecting better command responsiveness at army and corps); neither side receives an automatic Initiative or Activation die roll bonus after Turn 1.

B.6. Joint Rail Movement: Initiative Player first, then the Reactive Player. Five unit limit per player, but HQ, panzer/tank/mechanized/motorized units each count as two units. See 5.3 RAIL MOVEMENT for limits on Single-Track and Double-Track lines.


C.1. Activation Determination Segment: (Skipped for the first Activation.) the Overall Initiative Player automatically activates a formation for the first Activation and becomes the Phasing Player. After the first Activation, and in all subsequent activations of the Operations Phase, both players each roll one die and the high die roll wins; one Player may have die roll modifiers depending on the scenario turn, as stated above in B.5; ties are resolved as specified in B.5. The player who wins the Activation Determination Die Roll is the “Phasing Player” and must conduct Operations (Movement and Combat) with a formation, although these operations may consist of the activated command doing nothing (“The decision not to make a decision is a decision”); there is no Yielding of the Initiative or Passing (unless the Player has activated all his or her HQs and none remain, in which case that Player is forced to Pass and the opponent proceeds to activate HQs until none remain to be activated). The opportunity to conduct movement and combat, if not taken, is lost forever, as in real military operations.

C.2 Activation Segment The Phasing Player chooses the first formation to conduct Operations and performs operations with that formation’s combat units. The German Army Player activates units by Army Headquarters (or equivalent HQ [e.g. AD Kempf] or independent corps); the Soviet Army Player activates units by Front Headquarters (or equivalent HQ or independent army) in sequence, revealing and activating #1 first, and on subsequent activations the next higher number, until all 7 have been revealed and activated.

A. Full Activation Segment Procedure. A single Activation Segment consists of the following Operational Pulses for the Activated Formation:
1. The Phasing Player checks the supply and communications status of each unit of the Activated Formation, and applies any supply or Out of Command penalties.
2. First Movement Impulse - Movement (with possible Overruns [6.0] by Mobile Mode attacking units, at +3 MP, and possible Defender Disruption [6.3]) and Combat (with Non-Phasing Player Anti-Tank fires against attacking units, Barrage and Counter-Battery Fires, and the possible offensive and defensive application of Air Points; Combat Supply status is determined at the instant of combat). Mode Movement Allowances: Mobile = Normal (counter value); Assault or Static = Halved (round down).
3. First Combat Impulse by units of the Activated Formation
Each Activated Formation unit during the First Combat Impulse may:
• Hold position; or
• Disengage (8.3),) if in an EZOC, at a +2 MP cost; or
• Move (and may conduct Overruns [6.0] if in Mobile Mode at a +3 MP cost, and as an alternative to Disengagement if beginning the Impulse in an EZOC; Overruns may cause Defender Disruption [6.3]); or
• Conduct an Attack (may, if in Mobile Mode; an Attack includes Meeting Engagement and Hasty Attack battles);or
• If a Soviet formation is in Assault Mode, it must Attack with at least one unit or stack (whether in an EZOC or not; an Assault is a Deliberate Attack).
• The Phasing Player may allocate Air Points offensively, and the Non-Phasing Defending Player may allocate Air Points defensively.

Gun Sub-Impulse by Anti-Tank units/points of the Non-Phasing Player against attacking units of the Activated Formation.

• Attack specifications: Whenever a unit or stack of units of an Activated Formation which is in Mobile Mode either starts movement in or enters an EZOC it must either cease all movement for the phase or conduct an Attack which is resolved immediately. No other Activated Formation units or stacks may participate, nor may units or stacks of the Phasing Player which are not Activated. German artillery may barrage if eligible and capable. Red Army artillery may not barrage, but if stacked with the attacking unit or in the attacking stack may apply their artillery factor as an attack value. Red Army artillery units committed in such a Direct Fire role are eliminated by any result which negatively affects the Attacker (Exchange, Retreat, Step Loss), and this loss does not fulfill any step losses required of the Soviet Player, but is the extra price paid by having artillery close to the Battle Zone. German Artillery Barrages may be conducted against Red Army units in support of German Activated Formation units in an Attack (13.5 Revised), with possible 13.6 Counter-Battery Fires by Red Army artillery.
• Assault specifications: An Activated Soviet Army in the Assault Mode must conduct an attack with some of that formation’s units. If no enemy units are in the ZOC of any of the units of that formation, the Soviet Player must move some units to positions where they can conduct at least one attack. If a Soviet Player has placed a formation under an Assault order which does not comply with the requirement to conduct an actual assault (it is a command decision for the Activated Formation’s commanding general), the Soviet Player loses 1 Victory Point (total, not per unit) as a penalty applied to the command for failing to follow STAVKA’s guidance (the commander who failed to follow orders was penalized, and more severely than just a bad Officer Efficiency Report; this helps provide the incentive to follow through on the Assault Mode, if selected).
4. Second (Exploitation) Combat Impulse by units of the Activated Formation if in the Assault Mode (with possible offensive and defensive application of Air Points; Combat Supply status is determined at the instant of combat).
5. Mechanized Activation Segment The Activated Formation may conduct Mechanized Operations with eligible units.
Mechanized Activation Segment Procedure. A single Mechanized Activation Segment consists of the movement of the armored/panzer or mechanized/ panzer grenadier or motorized units of the Activated Formation:
1. The Phasing Player again checks the supply and communications status of each such mechanized unit of the Activated Formation, and applies any supply or Out of Command (command is traced to the hex last occupied by the HQ before it was moved to the “Operations Completed” box) penalties.
2. Mechanized units of the Activated Formation conduct Movement and Overrun Combat if in Mobile Mode (with Non-Phasing Player Anti-Tank fires against attacking units, and the possible offensive and defensive application of Air Points; Combat Supply status is determined at the instant of combat).
3. When all mechanized units of the Activated Formation have performed a Mechanized Activation, the Players proceed to the Joint Organizational Phase.

Upon an Activated Formation completing its operations, the Players conduct the next Activation Determination Segment and Activation Segment, and continue the routine until all HQs have conducted operations (and for the Soviet Player all Red Army sequence markers, 1-7, have been revealed and the corresponding Front activated). At this point the Operations Phase is completed, Ops Comp markers are removed, and the players proceed to the Joint Organizational Phase.


E.1. Disruption Removal: The Initiative Player removes Disruption markers first, followed by the other Player.

E.2. Replacements/Unit Reorganization: The Initiative Player first replaces lost steps with Replacement Steps, places units into or remove from independent command/alternate command, and units may be broken down or recombined, followed by the other Player.

E.3. Game Turn Indication. The Game Turn marker is advanced.

KURSK Key Rules Summary

New Markers:
BRG COMP = Offensive Barrage Completed
OPS COMP = Operations Completed
OOC/C = Out of Command/Communications
OOS = Out of Supply

5.14 Units must expend MP to Disengage ([8.3] +2 MP) or conduct an Overrun ([6.0] +3 MP).
5.2 Movement Inhibitions and Prohibitions
5.22 A unit which exits an EZOC may not enter another EZOC in the same phase, except German units conducting Infiltration Movement [5.5].
5.23 A unit may always move at least one hex unless (1) doing so would violate [5.22], or (2) it is prohibited from moving in that phase (e.g. Disrupted).
5.24 If a unit is only moving one hex during a Movement Phase, it may Disengage or perform one Overrun (Exception 11.53) regardless of total MP cost.
5.25 A unit which moves out of an EZOC must expend the necessary MP to Disengage (+2 MP) or Overrun (+3 MP).
5.26 A unit which moves into an EZOC cannot move further in that Phase (Exception 6.0 Overrun).
5.27 A unit unable to trace a LOC or Supply to the appropriate HQ (see 11.5) has its MP halved, rounding down.
5.28 Overruns may be executed in either Movement Phase (at +3 MP).
5.29 Different Modes have different MP allowances (Mobile: Full; Attack & Static: ½, rounded down).
5.3 Rail Movement
5.33 Rail Movement Allowances: 5 units, 20 hexes on Single-Tracks; 25 hexes on Single- and Double-Track combinations; 30 hexes on Double-Tracks.
5.36 Rail Move Restrictions: Disrupted units and units in Assault Mode may not move by Rail.
5.37 Rail Move by a Mech/Motorized, Panzer/Tank or HQ unit counts as two units, of the five total allowed.
5.38 Rail Move Limits on specific Single-Track hexes: two units (or one of those specified by 5.37).
5.39 Rail Move Limits on specific Double-Track hexes: four units (or two of those specified by 5.37).
5.4 Effects of Mode on Movement
5.41 Unit Static & Assault Modes: : ½ MA, rounded down; if Out of Command or Supply, ¼ MA, rounded down.
5.42 Units in Static Mode may not move in Mech Movement Phase.
5.43 Disrupted units may not move.
5.5 German Infiltration Movement: a German unit (only) which begins its First Movement Phase (only) in an EZOC may move directly into another EZOC
(Exceptions: Below and 8.27), at the cost of its entire MA, regardless of the terrain cost.
5.51 German Infiltration Movement may not move through a Dragontooth or River hexside.
5.52. German units must be in both Command communication (LOC) and Supply to conduct Infiltration movement.
5.54 Insufficient MPs do not preclude Infiltration Movement, per 5.23.
5.55 A German unit must begin the Movement Phase adjacent to or stacked with another German combat unit to conduct Infiltration.
5.6 Special Terrain Rules
5.61 In cases where a hex has more than one Terrain type, the single most expensive MP cost is paid, but all Defensive column shifts are cumulative.
5.62 If a hex has both Dragonteeth and Entrenchments, and is attacked exclusively through a friendly Dragontooth hexside(s), the Defenders receive a left column shift for both the Dragonteeth and Entrenchments, for a total of 2.

6.0 OVERRUN: A Phasing unit or stack may attempt an Overrun Attack if in Mobile Mode at a cost of +3 MP, and a two column shift to the Left.
6.11 Must be in Mobile Mode and in Command Communication, and must total at least six Strength Points before column shifts.
6.12 Conducted in the Movement Phases, First and/or Mech.
6.13 Unit(s) must be in Supply at both beginning of Movement and at instant of Overrun.
6.14 May only be conducted against units in a single hex; no multi-hex Overruns; any units to conduct an Overrun together must begin their movement stacked together; may split up afterwards.
6.15 No limit on the number of Overruns which may be executed against a given Enemy target hex in a Friendly Movement Phase; may not be conducted across a Major River hexside.
6.16 Unit(s) may make as many Overruns as permitted by the MA; ZOCs of Enemy being Overrun are ignored until resolution of the Overrun.
6.17 All units in the hex in which an Overrun is initiated must participate in the Overrun. [6.14 mandates that if a stack is to conduct an Overrun, they must either start together adjacent or move into an adjacent empty hex.]
6.18 HQ units may stack and move with Overrunning units, but do not add to the attack strength of the Overrunning units; are the last units to take casualties; pay the additional +3 MP, and are subject to all other restrictions on Overruns.
6.19 Unit(s) may Overrun an adjacent hex as its only movement for the Phase, regardless of the total MP cost.
6.2 Overrun Resolution: Overrunning units never retreat more than one hex [6.23]. and any combat losses in excess of one are taken as Step Losses.
6.23 Should an Overrun fail to dislodge or eliminate the Defending Enemy units, the Overrunning units retreat to either the hex from which the Overrun was initiated or a hex adjacent to it [9.78].
6.24 Successful Overrunning units must occupy the vacated hex, and may continue to move each successful Overrunning unit which possesses remaining MPs, but may not Disengage from the EZOC of another Enemy unit.
6.3 Disruption
6.31 Defenders which retreat as the result of Overrun [9.7] are immediately Disrupted, except Artillery.
6.32 Disruption occurs as a result of Overrun, not normal Combat ( Exception: 21.45).
6.33 Disruption Effects: unit may not move or attack, but does have a ZOC.
6.34 Disruption a second time has no additional effect.
6.35 Disruption Markers are removed during the first Friendly Disruption Removal Phase after a given unit is Disrupted.

7.0 STACKING: Six Stacking Point limit on stacks except during Movement; any number of Friendly units may move through a hex.
7.1 Stacking Point Values:
7.11 Soviet Corps = 3
7.12 Division, KGs, HQs = 2
7.13 Partisan, AT, Artillery = 0
7.14 All others (e.g. regiments, fortified areas) = 1
7.2 Restrictions on Stacking
7.21 Units may not violate stacking limits during retreat after Combat [9.7]; if all retreat routes are blocked by fully stacked hexes, the unit(s) must take Step losses in lieu of retreat.
7.22 Stacks found to be over-stacked during any phase other than its Movement Phase, the owning Player must eliminate units until the stacking limits are met.
7.23 One Soviet AT unit and one Soviet Artillery unit may be placed in a Soviet-occupied hex in addition to other units.
7.24 Units in different Modes may be stacked together, but may be penalized for this [9.45].
7.25 A unit’s Stacking Point value is always the same, regardless of the number of Steps it has.

8.0 ZOCs: Semi-Locking; units must stop upon entering an EZOC, but may Disengage at the start of a Movement Phase at a MP cost of +2, or may Overrun at a MP cost of +3; German units may attempt Infiltration at a cost of the entire MA. Combat is optional, not mandatory.
8.11 All Combat and German HQ units exert a ZOC; other units (including AT, Artillery & Partisans) do not.
8.12 ZOCs do not extend into City hexes or across Major River hexsides.
8.12 If a Combat or HQ unit is Out of Command/Communications (LOC) or Supply for one full Game Turn it loses its ZOC.
8.2 Effects of ZOCs
8.21 A unit entering an EZOC must cease movement, unless it initiates an Overrun, at +3 MP cost.
8.22 No addition MP cost to enter an EZOC.
8.23 Units may leave an EZOC as a result of Combat, or by Disengagement (at +2 MP cost, and may not again enter an EZOC or Enemy-occupied hex; but see 5.5 and 6.0).
8.25 Friendly units negate EZOCs for supply [11.2] and retreats [9.7], but do not negate EZOCs for Movement (a unit must stop upon entering the EZOC).
8.26 EZOCs do not affect Friendly LOCs.
8.27 A Friendly unit may not enter an EZOC of an Enemy unit which is adjacent to at least one Major River hexside; Friendly units negate EZOCs for this (Illustration 2, page 8).
8.3 DISENGAGEMENT: a unit which begins its Movement Phase in and EZOC may disengage, at +2 MP cost.
8.31 Costs 2 MP, in addition to Terrain Costs.
8.32 A unit which Disengages may not enter an EZOC during that Movement Phase (Exception: 5.5 and 6.).
8.33 An Overrunning unit does not pay Disengagement costs.

9.0 COMBAT: A unit adjacent to an Enemy unit during a Friendly Combat Phase may initiate combat, subject to Mode restrictions (Combat is not Mandatory. Combat is affected by Combat Modifiers, including Terrain, Overrun (although a combination of Movement and Combat), and unit Mode; a Combat Modifier causes a Column Shift.
In the Defense, Soviet Anti-Tank units and German HQ AT points engage the Attacker(s) before they attack the other defending units.
In the Defense, Defending Soviet Artillery units and German HQ Artillery points provide a Strength Modifier, which is subtracted from the Attack Strength of the Attacking units.
Defensive Capability is measured in Steps, rather than Strength Points; the total number of Steps in a Defending Stack or unit provides a Die Roll Modifier (DRM), as shown on Table 9.92.
As the result of combat, units may be forced to either retreat or to take a Step Loss, or both, as determined by the CRT (Table 9.91) and the units’ Modes. The Mode limits the distance (number of hexes) a unit may retreat, but does not restrict the number of Step losses it may take.
The Attacker announces Attacks.
If the Defending stack contains an AT unit, or the HQ has AT points, the Defending Player immediately resolves an AT Combat against the Attacking units [13.2].
Total the number of Attacking Strength points in the attack on a given defender, and subtract any Defending Artillery strength modifier, to derive the Net Attack Strength; find the appropriate column on the CRT and apply any relevant modifiers to set the total net column shifts.
The Attacker consults the Step Die Roll Modifier Table (Table 9.92) for the final DRM, rolls the die and combines with the final DRM to obtain the final Combat Results, applied first to the Defender and then the Attacker.
9.1 Restrictions on Combat
9.11 Only Combat units in Assault or Mobile Mode, and German HQ units, may initiate attacks; AT units and German HQ AT points may attack, but only in
Defense reaction to the Enemy’s Attack. Soviet HQs, Artillery, Disrupted units and units in Static Mode may not attack; Artillery can Barrage [13.0].
9.12 An Attacking unit may attack any one adjacent hex containing Enemy.
9.13 Units in Mobile Mode may attack only during its First Combat Segment ([6.0] Overruns are Movement with Combat); units in Assault Mode may attack in both its First and Second Combat Segments.
9.14 Attacking is voluntary. Friendly units not involved in an Attack are never affected by the results of that attack.
9.15 Enemy stacks may be attacked from multiple adjacent hexes.
9.16 Units may attack only once per Combat Segment; no Enemy unit may be attacked more than once per Combat Segment.
9.17 Soviet units must be in Communication [11.5] with its higher HQ [11.1].
9.2 Multiple Unit Combat
9.21 All units in a hex are attacked as an integral whole. (Exception: 9.77, units which retreated into a hex as the result of combat.)
9.22 Not all units in a stack containing attacking units need to attack. [Overrunning stacks must start together.]
9.23 A unit or units attacking together adjacent to more than one Enemy-occupied hex may attack only one target hex.
9.3 Restrictions on Combat Resolution
9.31 Attacking stacks or units must have at least six attack strength points before column shifts; otherwise the attack is prohibited.
9.32 Terrain effects are cumulative for the Defender. (Exception: 9.33)
9.33 If units attack from more than one hex across different hexside Terrain types, the hexside Terrain with the smallest column shift is in effect.
9.34 Column shifts are all combined.
9.37 AT and Artillery units never add to the Step Value of an Attack. AT and Artillery units alone in a hex are eliminated by either Overrun or Attack, at no loss to the Attacker.
9.38 HQ units have one Step which is always added to the total Step Value of the Defending stack.
9.4 Explanation of Combat Results
9.41 Combat Results are presented as two numbers separated by either a “/” or “M”; Attacker result and Defender result.
9.43 A number indicates the affected stack must take a combination of Step losses and hexes retreated to reach the specified penalty number; the Mode will restrict how many hexes a unit may retreat, based on its Mode [10.2]. The Player may retreat the unit up to permitted limit, and any remaining result number must be taken in Step losses.
9.44 Players may satisfy a combat result by any combination of Step losses and hexes retreated, subject to the limits on hexes retreated and stacking restrictions. The taking of losses is affected by the presence of Enemy Artillery or AT units. \
9.45 If units in a Defending or Attacking stack are in more than one Mode, the Opposing Player chooses which of these modes he/she wishes to consider the entire stack to be in for the purposes of that combat, before the combat is resolved.
9.46 Step Losses taken are marked by a -2/-1 marker or a -4/-2 (as appropriate), in addition to flipping units.
9.47 Losses to left of slash affect the Attacker, those on right affect the Defender. A result with an “M” means that one is added to the result for both the Attacker and Defender if, and only if, the Attacker is in Assault Mode and the Defender is in Static Mode; however, it also means that one is subtracted from the result for both the Attacker and Defender if, and only if, both the Attacker and Defender are in Mobile Mode.
9.5 Unit Substitution
9.51 Units with an even number of Steps at Full Strength are flipped to the reverse side upon losing a Step.
9.52 Non-Guard Rifle divisions have Uncertain (“?”) values, revealed upon taking a Step loss.
9.53 Most German infantry divisions and Soviet rifle corps have non-consecutive steps, which require the use of -2/-1 and -4/-2 markers.
9.6 Special Unit Combat Resolution
9.61 AT and Artillery never provide step losses.
9.62 Step losses are taken from HQ units only after all other units in a hex are eliminated.
9.63 HQs are eliminated upon taking one step loss, but may be brought back into play [12.14].
9.64 AT unit elimination.
9.65 Artillery units have levels, not steps, but lose levels for each hex retreated.
9.66 HQ units without a combat unit in the hex defend in Mobile Mode.
9.7 Retreats
9.71 Units may only retreat as many hexes as permitted by their Mode.
9.72 If a unit cannot retreat, or the Owning Player chooses not to retreat any farther, any remaining losses must be taken as Step losses.
9.73 Units stacked together need not retreat together.
9.74 Retreating units must move as far from the combat hex as possible.
9.75 Retreating units must, if possible, retreat to a vacant hex. (Exception: a unit may retreat to a Friendly-occupied Major city instead of a vacant hex.) If no vacant hex is available, a unit may retreat into or through a Friendly-occupied hex, but units may not be retreated into or through a hex in violation of stacking restrictions [7.21].
9.76 Units may not be retreated into an EZOC (Exception: 9.78) unless a Friendly unit is present in such a hex.
9.77 A unit retreating into a Friendly-occupied hex which is subsequently attacked in the same Game Turn does not contribute to the defense, and may not be used to satisfy a combat loss; if the stack is retreated or eliminated the previously-retreated unit(s) is/are eliminated.
9.78 Overrun retreats must adhere to Illustration 3, page 9.
9.79 No retreats across Major River hexsides.
9.8 Advance after Combat
9.81 Path of Retreat.
9.82 Units entering a vacated Enemy Entrenchment which was occupied at the beginning of that Activation Segment may advance no further, and units may not Advance into an Enemy-occupied hex.
9.83 The path of retreat for a unit eliminated in the hex is that hex plus one adjacent hex, as chosen by the Attacker (no requirement that stacked units advance into the same adjacent hex).
9.84 Option to Advance must be made immediately after Combat Resolution.
9.85 Advancing victorious units ignore EZOCs when entering the hex vacated by a defeated (retreated or eliminated) defender.
9.86 Units owned by the non-phasing Player which advance after combat may not be attacked again in the Segment in which they advance. [??? How is this possible, since Defending, Non-Phasing units never advance after a combat? Should read: Units of the Non-Phasing Player which retreat may not be attacked again by those same Attacking units in the Activation Segment in which they attacked.]
9.87 Does not apply to Overruns.
9.88 Victorious units which take Step losses may still Advance after Combat.
9.89 Advance across a Major River hexside is permitted, even if the advancing unit(s) enter an EZOC in doing so.

10.0 UNIT MODES. A unit’s Mode is identical to that of its HQ, even if Out of Command/Control or Supply.
Assault: Deliberate Attacks - marked.
Mobile: Standard, unmarked Mode. Tactical deployment or Hasty Defense.
Static: Deliberate/Prepared Defense - marked.
10.1 Restrictions on Modes
10.11 If a unit’s HQ is eliminated, not yet in play, or is Disrupted, the unit may not change Mode unless placed in Independent Command [11.11].
10.14 HQ, AT, Artillery and Partisan units are never affected by Mode; their capabilities are always the same (see 9.66 for HQs alone).
10.16 A unit does not become Disrupted because its HQ is Disrupted.
10.17 A Disrupted unit is treated as if it is in “Disrupted” Mode, even if its HQ is not.
10.18 Units in Independent Command are always in Mobile Mode, and never subordinate to any HQ.

11.0 HQ Source of Supply and Communications
HQs determine the Mode for all subordinate units, and if a unit is in Supply and/or Communications. A unit may only be supplied by its own HQ or that HQ’s immediately superior HQ. An Out-of-Supply (OOS) unit is penalized for both movement and/or combat. An Out-of-Command/Communications (OOC/C) unit is penalized in movement, and Soviet OOC/C units may not attack.
11.1 Unit Subordination to HQs
11.11 Each Player may place some non-HQ units in Independent Command (Ind Com) [11.14 German: 9 units; Soviet: 5 units].
11.12 In the Joint Organizational Phase, a unit’s subordination may be changed to that of a different HQ than its designated HQ, if in communications range, marked as Alternate Subordination (Alt Sub). Units in Alt Sub count against the Independent Command limits [and are in the same Mode as their Alt HQ]. Upon a unit’s Re-subordination to its original HQ the Alt Sub marker is removed.
11.13 Units in Ind Com are always in Mobile Mode; may not Attack or initiate Overruns, and Defend in Mobile Mode. Units in Alt Sub are in the same Mode as their controlling HQ.
11.14 German Ind Com/Alt Sub limit: 9 units (includes KG units); Soviet limit: 5 units.
11.15 No unit may begin a scenario in Ind Com [Exception: 19.44 four German units may be] or Alt Sub.
11.16 Soviet AT and Artillery units are never subordinate to HQs, and therefore are not affected in any way by subordination; most Supply and
Communications restrictions do not apply (see 11.59).
11.17 German higher HQs are Armies, Soviet are Fronts.
11.18 If a Defending stack has units in Ind Com, Alt Sub or Breakdown units, or one of these with other units, which may be subordinate to a different HQ, but are under the same army (German) or front (Soviet), the Attacker receives a one column shift right.
11.19 If a Defending stack has units in Ind Com, Alt Sub or Breakdown units, or one of these with other units, which may be subordinate to a different HQ, but are under a different army (German) or front (Soviet), the Attacker receives a two column shift right.
11.2 Lines of Supply
Varies by unit (11.3) and may not be traced through an EZOC unless the hex is occupied by a Friendly unit.
11.3 Determination of Supply
11.31 Line of Supply Length: Non-HQ unit: 7 hexes max to its HQ; HQs: 8 hexes max to a Friendly Supply Source or road or RR leading off the appropriate map edge.
11.32 Road or RR hexes may not be Enemy-occupied, nor in EZOC unless occupied by a Friendly unit.
11.33 If a unit’s HQ is not in play, it may trace Supply to the HQ’s next higher HQ.
11.34 A Disrupted or OOS HQ cannot provide Supply for subordinate units.
11.35 Soviet Supply…
11.36 German Supply…
11.37 Supply may be traced only through RR hexes on the Friendly side of the scenario Start Line, but through any Road hex behind the FEBA.
11.38 Overrunning units trace to the Overrun Initiation hex.
11.4 Determination of [Line of] Communication (LOC)
Cannot exceed 7 hexes.
11.41 A unit must trace to its immediately superior (controlling) HQ at the instant of movement or combat. If that HQ is not in play, the LOC may be traced to the controlling HQ’s immediately superior HQ.
11.42 A non-HQ unit is OOC/C if its controlling HQ is Disrupted.
11.43 Enemy units and EZOCs do not affect Friendly LOCs (but do affect Supply).
11.5 Effect of Lack of Supply And/Or Communications on Units
11.51 Statuses are determined at the beginning of Movement, before any MP are expended.
11.52 Any unit OOS and/or OOC/C at the instant of Movement has its MPs halved (round down).
11.53 A unit OOC/C may not execute an Overrun.
11.54 Supply for Overrun and Combat is determined at the instant of Combat.
11.55 A unit OOS at the instant of Combat has its Attack Strength halved (round down); a stack has its total combined strength halved.
11.56 If at least one unit in a Defending stack is OOS, the Attacking Player receives a shift of two columns to the right.
11.57 Units are not eliminated due to lack of Supply.
11.58 Units in Ind Com are always in Communication, and trace Supply as does an HQ, but limited to 7 hexes.
11.59 Artillery and AT units trace Supply as do units in Ind Com. An Artillery unit which is OOS may not Barrage, but may suppress Attack Points. An AT unit which is OOS may not engage in Combat. An OOS German HQ unit is restricted in its us use of AT and Artillery points in the same way.

Each Player receives Replacement Steps, to be allocated in the Joint Organizational Phase to recover steps by units which have suffered losses.
12.1 Restrictions on Replacement of Steps
12.11 May be accumulated from Turn to Turn, and there is no limit on the number that may be allocated and expended in a given Joint Organizational Phase.
12.12 A units may only be upgraded to the highest printed Step on the counter, but a unit not at full-strength at the start of a scenario may be upgraded.
12.13 There is no limit to the number of Steps that may expended on a single unit, provided 12.12 is observed.
12.14 When using a replacement Step to recreate an eliminated HQ, the HQ is placed on any hex on the Friendly mapedge, and may be moved in the next Turn.
12,15 The unit be in Supply.
12.16 Replacement Steps may never be used to upgrade eliminated combat, artillery or AT units.
12.17 No Replacement Steps are received on the last Game Turn of a scenario.
12.2 Soviet Replacement Step Limitation
Soviet units in a German ZOC may not receive Replacement Steps.

Doctrinal differences reflected in Soviet units versus German HQ capabilities.
Artillery points suppress Attacking Strength points, and are twice as effective against Infantry as against Armor. AT points engage in Combat with Attacking units before those units can resolve Combat against other Defending units in the hex. Artillery or AT points may be used whenever a stack containing such a gun unit, or containing German units eligible for AT or Artillery Point support, is Attacked or Overrun. Soviet gun units may fire Defensively only at units attacking their stack.
13.1 Soviet Artillery Units
13.11 Artillery units affect Combat with their Strength Modifier, which is equal to their total Artillery Points. Artillery units primarily affect Infantry units, and secondarily affect armored, mechanized and HQ units.
13.12 If Infantry units participate in an Attack against a stack containing an Artillery unit, then the full value (of the Strength Modifier) of the Artillery unit is subtracted from the Attack Strength of those Infantry units.
13.13 If only units that are secondarily affected by Artillery attack a stack containing an Artillery unit, then half the value of the Artillery unit is subtracted from the Attack Strength of the Attack.
13.14 When an Attacking stack contains Infantry units, but not in sufficient Strength Points to cover the full value of the Artillery units, deduct the total Strength Points of the primarily affected unit. Then, with the Artillery point value left over, subtract half the remainder from the units secondarily affected, rounding down.
13.15 Whenever a stack containing Infantry units takes Step losses [9.4] as a result combat against a stack containing Defending Artillery, the Step losses must be taken from the Infantry before any Step losses may be taken from secondarily affected units. Step losses may be taken from Infantry units which are suppressed, and thus possibly not contributing at all to the Attack Strength.
13.16 The Soviet Player may choose not to use an Artillery unit, but may not withhold any Artillery points of an Artillery unit he does use.
13.17 An Artillery unit may contribute its Strength Modifier to a Defense at four separate times in a Game Turn:
- during Enemy Movement Impulse or Enemy Mechanized Movement Phase (as many times as an Overrun is attempted against its stack);
- once during the First Combat Impulse, and once during the Second Combat Impulse.
13.19 A Soviet Artillery unit not stacked with a Friendly HQ or Combat unit which is attacked or overrun by a German combat unit(s) may not use its Strength Modifier against the attacking unit(s), and is Eliminated.
13.2 Soviet AT Units AT units engage in combat with attacking units during the Gun Sub-Impulse, or immediately before a regular ground attack in the Second (Exploitation) Combat Impulse. AT units may inflict Step losses on attacking units before the ground combat is resolved.
13.21 AT units are more effective against armored/mechanized/motorized units; for the purposes of this rule, a stack is considered armored/mech/motorized if it contains at least one of these units, and Infantry or HQ only if the entire stack is composed solely of those type units.
13.22 Whenever a Defending stack contains an AT unit, the Defending, Non-Phasing Player may conduct an attack upon the Phasing Players units before the main ground combat is resolved. This combat is resolved as normal combat with all relevant combat modifiers; however, Terrain does not affect AT Combat, and the Attacking Player does not get the Terrain benefits of the hexes in which his units are located.
13.23 AT units attack with their AT Points as the Attack Strength; if the total is less than Six, the AT unit(s) use the 1-5 Column (an exception to 9.31).
13.24 If the Attacking stack is composed entirely of Infantry and/or HQ units, the column used is shifted one to the left, in addition to all other combat modifiers.
13.25 Any combat result against the Attacking, Phasing Player’s units must be taken as Step losses, while any combat result against the AT units must be taken in Levels.
13.26 During the Gun Sub-Impulse, a result affecting an AT unit is halved, rounding up. During Movement, if the AT unit’s stack should be Overrun, any result against the AT unit is applied as stated on the CRT.
13.27 An AT unit may engage in combat with German units at three separate times:
- during either forms of German Movement, as many times as an Overrun is attempted against its stack;
- once during the Gun Sub-Impulse;
- and once during the Second (Exploitation) Combat Impulse.
13.28 An AT unit not stacked with a Combat or HQ unit which is attacked or Overrun by a German combat unit may not fire against the Attacking unit(s) and is eliminated (9.37).
13.29 Step losses taken in combat with AT units must be taken from Armored/Mech units; only if no such units remain in the Attacking stack may losses be taken from non-Armor/non-Mech units.
13.3 German AT & Artillery AT & Artillery values are assigned to individual HQ units, and HQ units without AT or Artillery values do not possess AT or Artillery Points.
The Soviet Player declares an Attack on a German stack, but does not state which specific units are attacking (the German Player can probably guess which).
The German Player may allocate as many AT or Artillery Points as desired, up to the HQ’s total points, and then resolves the AT attack.
13.31 The HQ may dispense AT and Artillery Points only to units stacked with or adjacent to that HQ. “There is no limit to the number of points that may be assigned from a given headquarters to any one combat.” [Probably should read: “Except for the number of Points assigned to the HQ, there is no limit to the number of points that may be assigned from a given headquarters to any one combat,” since the Germans do not have an unlimited Artillery capacity; see 13.33.]
13.32 For a given HQ to dispense Points to a combat, at least one unit directly subordinate to that HQ must be in the Defending hex.
13.33 The HQ’s quota of AT and Artillery Points is for an entire Phase; therefore, points used in the First Combat could not be used in Second (Exploitation) Combat.
13.34 An HQ may only dispense AT and Artillery Points only during the First Movement Impulse and the second movement, of the Mechanized Activation, in the case of Overruns), and during Combat Impulses.
13.35 Artillery Points are used as if an Artillery unit with Points equal to those assigned is in the Defending stack, using all the provisions 13.1. If an odd amount of Points are dispensed to Defend against an Attacking stack composed of secondarily affected units, the Artillery Points are halved, rounding down.
13.36 AT Points are used as if an AT unit with Points equal to those assigned is in the Defending stack, using all the provisions 13.2, except that AT Points are never lost when they engage in combat with attacking units (exception to 13.25).
13.37 Eliminated HQs lose their AT and/or Artillery values, and are replaced by their side without AT and Artillery Points.
13.38 An HQ unit not stacked with a Combat or HQ unit which is attacked or Overrun by a Soviet combat unit may not use its AT and Artillery values during that Phase, unless the Soviet Player fails to attack the HQ unit before it can dispense its Points to Defending German units in an adjacent hex, in which case the Points may be used.
13.4 Soviet Artillery Barrage
Soviet Artillery units may be used to Barrage adjacent German units in conjunction with Soviet ground combat.
13.41 A Soviet Artillery unit may Barrage only once per Game Turn, and only during a Soviet Formation’s First Combat Impulse, after which it is marked as Barrage Completed (BRG COMP).
13.42 At least one Soviet combat unit must be attacking the target stack, but there is no limit to the number of Soviet Artillery units that may Barrage a given Target stack, other than the stacking limit and number of available adjacent hexes.
13.43 Artillery units must be in a hex adjacent to the target stack in order to Barrage, but need not be stacked with any other Soviet units.
13.44 The Soviet Player receives a shift of one to the right for each Level of Barraging Soviet Artillery, cumulative with all other combat modifiers.
13.45 A Soviet Artillery unit may both Barrage and contribute its Strength Modifier to a Defense in the same Game Turn.
13.5 German Artillery Barrage
German Artillery Points may be used to Barrage Soviet units in conjunction with ground attacks.
13.51 A German HQ may allocate Artillery Points to Barrage only during the Formation’s First Combat Impulse, and each Point may be used only once.
13.52 A German HQ may only allocate Artillery Points to Barrage if at least two combat units committed to the ground attack are currently subordinated to it.
13.53 A German HQ may not conduct a ground attack in a First Combat Impulse in which it Barrages.
13.54 A German HQ may be up to two hexes from the target stack, and an HQ’s Artillery Points may be allocated into as many separate Barrages as the German Player desires, subject to the HQ’s total, but an HQ may only Barrage a particular unit once per Activation.
13.55 The German Player adds one to the total Attack Strength of the attacking ground units for each Artillery Point barraging, but there is no limit to the number of Artillery Points that may be allocated to a particular combat.
13.56 An Artillery Point may be both used to Barrage and to Suppress Soviet Strength Points in the same Game Turn,
13.6 Counter-Battery Fire
Friendly Artillery Points or units may be used to counteract or diminish Enemy AT and Artillery Points.
13.61 German Artillery Points may be dispensed by owning HQ if those HQ are adjacent to or stacked with German combat units under Barrage during an Enemy Combat Impulse. Each Artillery Point dispensed negates one Enemy Artillery Point; if a Soviet unit’s effective Artillery Points fall below the amount for a given Level, it operates as if it were of the next lowest Level (see 14.44).
13.62 German Artillery Points may also be used to negate Soviet AT unit points during the Gun Segment, or Soviet Artillery unit points during CombatImpulses, if the dispensing HQ is stacked with or adjacent to affected attacking combat units. Each Artillery Point dispensed negates one Enemy AT or Artillery Point.
13.63 If all of a Soviet’s unit’s AT points have been negated by CB Fire, that unit may not engage in combat with the attacking units.
13.64 Soviet Artillery units may use their total Artillery Points for CB Fire if they are stacked with affected attacking combat units; all provisions of 13.62 & 13.63 apply to Soviet CB Fire.
13.65 An Artillery Point or unit may not be used to Barrage or Suppress enemy units in the same Phase it is used to perform CB Fire.

Both Players may breakdown units, or recombine broken-down units.
14.1 German Kampfgruppen (KG) One German Infantry division may break down into two KGs.
14.11 German four-Step Infantry divisions (only) may breakdown into two KGs before beginning play or during the Das Heer Mode Segment of the Joint Organizational Phase.
14.12 Maximum of two divisions per corps, and a total of thirteen divisions total, may breakdown, for a maximum total of twenty-six KGs in play.
14.13 The German Independent Command limit is reduced by one for every three (or fraction) KGs in play.
14.14 The division must be in Communication in order to breakdown; it may be Out of Supply or in an EZOC.
14.17 KGs remain subordinate to the originating division’s HQ.
14.18 KGs may be placed in IND CMD.
14.2 Recombining KGs Two KGs stacked together may recombine into an Infantry division.
14.21 Must be adjacent to their originating division’s HQ to recombine.
14.22 If the KGs have suffered losses, the division into which they are recombined must be at the Step level corresponding to the total Steps of the two KGs.
14.24 A single KG may not be replaced by an equivalent Step divisional counter. Elimination of a KG does not prevent its twin from recombining with another KG to reform a division.
14.25 KGs in IND CMD may recombine with a KG not in IND CMD, in which case the reformed division is not in IND CMD. If two IND CMD KGs
recombine, the reformed division may be of any subordination.
14.26 An eliminated division may be brought back by KG recombination.
14.3 Soviet Unit Breakdown & Recombination
14.31 Soviet Infantry Rifle Corps may breakdown into three infantry divisions during the Soviet Mode Segment of the Joint Organizational Phase.
14.32 Soviet Rifle corps must be in Communication and not in an EZOC to breakdown or recombine, but need not be in supply.
14.33 The rifle corps must be replaced by three infantry divisions with identical Front subordination. If there are not enough infantry divisions to do so, the rifle corps may not breakdown. Thus the countermix is a limit on unit breakdowns.
14.34 Soviet rifle corps may begin the game broken down.
14.35 Two or three rifle divisions of the same or independent subordination may be recombined. The German Player takes all out-of-play corps (whether eliminated or substituted for) of the appropriate Front (not any due as reinforcements) and places them in an opaque container; the Soviet Player then randomly draws one, substituting it for the recombining two or three divisions. This corps’ Steps are equal to one less than the total of the divisions’ Steps.
14.36 Soviet divisions in IND CMD may be recombined into a corps of any Front.

The Soviet Player may place the Partisan units on Road and Railroad hexes behind German lines in order to cut German LOCs. In the Partisan Segment of the Joint Organizational Phase the Soviet Play may place any available Partisan units in Road and RR hexes not occupied by or in the EZOC of German-controlled units. Inoperative Partisans may be made Operative.
15.1 Restrictions on Placement of Soviet Partisans
15.11 Partisans may be placed in any Road or RR hex not occupied by or in the EZOC of a German-controlled unit.
15.12 Partisans are placed with the Inoperative side up.
15.13 Partisans may be place in a hex occupied or controlled by a Soviet combat or HQ unit, or even behind Soviet lines.
15.2 Effects of Partisan Units
15.21 An Inoperative Partisan has no effect on play (Exception 15.25) although it occupies a Road or RR hex.
15.22 A Partisan unit becomes Operative if it remains in play for one full Game Turn, and is flipped to its Operative side in the Partisan Segment.
15.23 An Operative Partisan unit prevents the tracing of Supply along the Road or RR hex in which it is located, but does not exert a ZOC.
15.24 A Partisan unit may not move.
15.25 A German-controlled unit may eliminate a Partisan unit by moving into the hex it occupies. The unit may not use Rail movement to move into the hex occupied by the Partisan unit, but may move by Rail into a RR hex adjacent.
15.26 Since Supply is determined at the instant of Movement, the German Player should eliminate as many Partisans as possible before moving units on the FEBA.
15.3 When Partisan Units Enter Play
15.31 May Scenario: first Joint Organizational Phase, 3 Partisans; July Scenario: first Joint Organizational Phase, 1 Partisan; August Scenario: first Joint Organizational Phase, 5 Partisans.
15.32 Succeeding Joint Organizational Phase: 1 Partisan, all scenarios.
15.33 Maximum limits on Partisans on-map: May, 6; July, 4; August, 7.
15.34 Eliminated Partisans may be brought back on the Joint Organizational Phase after elimination.
15.4 Release of Security Units
Each Partisan unit in play allows the German Player to place one Hungarian, Collaborationist Russian or German Security unit in Independent Command.
15.41 A released unit does not count against the German Player’s Independent Command limit.
15.42 If a Partisan is eliminated, the corresponding security unit will cease to be in Independent Command at the end of that Phase.
15.43 Hungarian: 1 Sec, 102 Lt, 103 Lt; Collaborationist: Mil; and German: 213S.

16.1 Limited Intelligence No examination of the opponent’s stacks until resolution of Combat or Overrun.

16.2 Disengagement while in Entrenchments Disengagement while occupying Entrenchments is facilitated by the protections Entrenchments afford.
Friendly Entrenchments: a unit may disengage at no extra MP cost.
Enemy Entrenchments: a unit in an Enemy Entrenchment hex may disengage at one extra MP cost (rather than the normal two MP cost for Disengagement).

16.3 SS Panzer Corps Integrity
One column shift right if all three SS divisions (Das Reich, Totenkopf & Liebstandarte AH) attack together.

Players are allocated Air Points for a scenario, on a per turn basis. Air Points may be used in Air Warfare, or to gain column shifts in Combat.
17.1 Interception: First the Soviet, then the German Player declares Interception. The Intercepting Player then attempts to intercept Enemy Air Points with any or all Air Points. If only one Player has declared Interception, that Player rolls a die, and successfully intercepts on a 1 or 2 (however, see 17.11). If both Players are attempting Interception, the German Player must roll a 1-5 for successful Interception [Soviet roll requirement is unstated, so it must remain a 1 or 2].
17.11 A Player may subtract one from the Interception die roll for every single Air Point over three that player commits to Interception; a roll of 6 always causes
Interception to fail.
17.12 Air Warfare may not occur without one player successfully intercepting the other.
17.13 Air Points used to Intercept (successfully or not) may only be used for Attack, during a Combat Impulse (see 17.22) of one of the Owning Player’s
Formations, and may not be used defensively.
17.14 The results of Air Warfare are applied simultaneously, although the Intercepting Player rolls first on the Air Warfare Results Table.
17.2 Air Points in Ground Combat Each Player may allocate his Air Points to cause a Column Shift in Combat.
17.21 Either or both players may allocate a maximum of two Air Points to a combat, before any combat calculations are performed.
17.22 The Attacker decides first to allocate Air Points to a combat before the Defender, placing an Air Point marker on the target stack, followed by the Defender.
17.23 Allocation of an Air Point to a given combat shifts the Column one to the right for the Attacker, and one to the left for the Defender; these shifts are cumulative with all others.
17.24 Air Points may be allocated to either an Attack or Defense (see 17.13). Once used, it is removed for the Game Turn.
17.25 Air Points may not be used to affect Overruns.
17.26 An Air Point may affect Ground Combat only once in a Game Turn.

18.2 Reinforcements

18.3 Soviet Reserves The Soviet Player may not move or attack with a reserve Formation until it is activated.
18.32 Activated [for free] if attacked by a German units [18.36 and do not count against the limits of 18.34 and 18.35].
18.33 The Soviet Player may spend one Victory Point to activate a reserve Formation, during the Reinforcements/Reserves Segment.
18.34 Soviet Reserve Formation Activation Limitations:
May Scenario: three maximum per turn.
July Scenario: five on Turn One; four on Turn Two; and three on Turn Three and subsequently.
August Scenario: three per turn (only two Formations are in Reserve).
18.37 Beginning with the next Game Turn after a reserve Formation has been Activated, the German Player receives one VP [per Turn] for that Formation until the conclusion of the seventh Game Turn of the Scenario. No VPs are awarded for Formations which are activated by German attack.
18.38 In Static Mode until Activated (Exception: 18.39).
18.39 AT and Artillery units assigned to reserve Formation HQs are attached to the Formation only so long as they remain in Reserve.
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Terry Lewis
United States
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"But first, the children ought to be fed." -- Virginia Held (1980) from "Property, Profits, and Economic Justice"
Well done, David!

I will be making a copy of this and adding it to my game box for: Kursk: History's Greatest Tank Battle, July 1943; 1980; SPI; Eric Goldberg; R. A. Simonsen; Masahiro Yamazaki.

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