Hey! Watch where you point that thing :)
What the actual diseases of Panademic are have been talked about in several threads.
The most popular choices being:
and a few other possibilities that have been mentioned:
The Black Death
Most people have a general idea about what these diseases are. But, for those of you that don't or for those that want to know more about them, here's some info you might enjoy. I think the more you know about the diseases that are spreading on the board the more that it helps add to the games theme.
I can completely understand why some would rather not name the diseases. Here's a great example from a Pandemic thread.
"I was also a little let down by not having the names of the diseases but, in the end, I think it was a great decision. This is a family game and it could be uncomfortable to people to be talking about diseases from the real world that may have affected or killed loved ones. Or, maybe, a given player might be even suffering from the disease."
So for those that would rather not choose actual diseases for the game, I have including my own version of some popular fictional diseases.
I don't claim to be any kind of expert on disease. Several sources were used for all of the information on the following diseases. I believe it to be fairly accurate. There are a few statements that may be considered more popular belief than fact. Such as: the ever growing threat of Small Pox being used as a biological attack. I choose to include information like this in the descriptions. Hey after all it's only a game.
So for your next game of Pandemic go ahead and pick your poison....eh hum,...I mean your diseases.
Plague: (The Black Death) Plague is notorious throughout history, due to the unprecedented scale of death and devastation it wrought. The Black Death was one of the most deadly pandemics in human history. Probably began in Central Asia and spread to Europe by the late 1340s. The total number of deaths worldwide from the pandemic is estimated at 75 million people. With an estimated 25-50 million deaths in Europe alone, the Black Death is estimated to have killed 30% to 60% of Europe's population. The same disease is thought to have returned to Europe every generation with varying virulence and mortalities until the 1700s. Although Plague has not caused a recent Pandemic, it is still endemic to some parts of the world. Cases are reported annually; most recently in November of 2007.
Symptoms: The three forms of the Black Death plague brought an array of signs and symptoms to those infected.
-Bubonic plague- The most commonly seen form during the Black Death, with a mortality rate of 30% to 75% and symptoms including fever of 101°-105 °F, headaches, painful joints, nausea and vomiting, and a general feeling of malaise. Of those who contracted the bubonic plague, 4 out of 5 died within eight days. The classic sign of bubonic plague was the appearance of buboes in the groin, the neck and armpits, which oozed pus and bled. These buboes were caused by internal bleeding. Victims underwent damage to the skin and underlying tissue, until they were covered in dark blotches. Most victims died within four to seven days after infection.
-Pneumonic plague- The second most commonly form, with a mortality rate of 95%. An airborne plague that attacks the lungs before the rest of the body. Symptoms included fever, cough and blood-tinged sputum. As the disease progressed, sputum became free flowing and bright red.
-Septicaemic plague- The least common form, with a mortality rate close to 100%. A form of blood poisoning. Symptoms were high fever and purple skin patches.
Transmission: Spread from the flea-bearing rodent reservoir of disease; the black rat.
However, without a rodent reservoir, pneumonic plague can be transmitted from human to human by respiratory transmission, and bubonic and septicaemic plague can be transmitted from human to human by human-biting fleas.
Ebola: Named after the Ebola River Valley where the virus first emerged in 1976 in simultaneous outbreaks in Sudan and Zaire. It has one of the highest mortality rates of any epidemic virus. The span of time from onset of symptoms to death is usually between 7 and 14 days. By the second week of infection, patients will either defervesce (the fever will lessen) or undergo systemic multi-organ failure. Mortality rates are generally high, ranging from 50% - 90%.
Because Ebola is potentially lethal and since no approved vaccine or treatment is available, Ebola is classified as a biosafety level 4 agent, as well as a Category A bioterrorism agent by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. It has the potential to be weaponized for use in biological warfare and was investigated for that use by both the Soviet Union and the United States during the Cold War. Its effectiveness as a biological-warfare agent is compromised by its extreme deadliness and its level of contagion: a typical outbreak spreads through a small village or hospital, affects the entire population, and then runs out of potential hosts, burning out before it reaches a larger community.
Symptoms: Ebola hemorrhagic fever is potentially lethal and encompasses a range of symptoms that appear suddenly: high fever (at least 101.8°F), severe headache, muscle, joint, or abdominal pain, severe weakness and exhaustion, sore throat, nausea, dizziness, and sometimes internal and external bleeding.
Transmission: Among humans, the virus is transmitted by direct contact with infected body fluids, or to a lesser extent, skin or mucus membrane contact. The incubation period can be anywhere from 2 to 21 days, but is generally between 5 and 10 days. Airborne transmission between monkeys has been demonstrated by an accidental outbreak in a laboratory located in Virginia, USA.
Avian influenza: (Avian flu),(H5N1),(Bird flu): H5N1 has evolved into a flu virus strain that infects more species than any previously known flu virus strain, is deadlier than any previously known flu virus strain, and continues to evolve becoming both more widespread and more deadly.
There is no evidence (yet) of efficient human-to-human transmission or of airborne transmission of H5N1 to humans. In almost all cases, those infected with H5N1 had extensive physical contact with infected birds. Still, around 60% of humans known to have been infected with H5N1 have died from it, and H5N1 may mutate or reassert into a strain capable of efficient human-to-human transmission. Epidemiologists are afraid that the next time such a virus mutates, it could pass from human to human. If this form of transmission occurs, another pandemic would result. Due to the high lethality and virulence of H5N1, its endemic presence, its increasingly large host reservoir, and its significant ongoing mutations, the H5N1 virus is the world's largest current pandemic threat.
Symptoms: Fever, cough, sore throat, muscle aches, conjunctivitis, and, in severe cases, breathing problems and pneumonia that may be fatal.
Transmission: Infected birds transmit H5N1 through their saliva, nasal secretions, feces and blood. Other animals may become infected with the virus through direct contact with these bodily fluids or through contact with surfaces contaminated with them.
Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS): A respiratory disease in humans (similar to pneumonia). A fairly new disease which is caused by the SARS corona virus. There has been one near pandemic to date. The initial out break in the Guangdong Province of China in November, 2002 was not reported to the World Health Organization; causing a severe delay in efforts to control the epidemic. As a result, and with the assistance of air travel passengers, the epidemic soon spread across the globe to 26 other countries. Thousands were quarantined and treated. By July 2003 there were 8,096 known infected cases and 774 deaths.
Symptoms: Initial symptoms are flu like and may include: fever, lethargy, gastrointestinal symptoms, cough, sore throat and other non-specific symptoms. The only symptom that is common to all patients appears to be a fever above 100.4 °F. Symptoms usually appear 2–10 days following exposure, but up to 13 days has been reported. In most cases symptoms appear within 2–3 days.
Transmission: SARS seems to spread by close person-to-person contact. Most readily by respiratory droplets from an infected person cough or sneeze, or when a person touches a surface or object contaminated with infectious droplets and then touches his or her mouth, nose, or eye(s). In addition, it is possible that the SARS virus might spread more broadly through the air (airborne spread) or by other ways that are not now known.
Typhoid fever: A Life-threatening illness caused by the bacterium Salmonella Typhi. With an estimated 16-33 million cases of annually resulting in 500,000 to 600,000 deaths in endemic areas, the World Health Organization identifies typhoid as a serious public health problem.
Symptoms: Sustained fever as high as 104°F, profuse sweating, gastroenteritis, and diarrhea. If untreated, the course of Typhoid Fever is divided into four stages, each lasting approximately one week. As the symptoms increase in severity with each advancing stage, the chance of survival decreases.
Transmission: Flying insects feeding on feces may occasionally transfer the bacteria through poor hygiene habits and public sanitation conditions. Ingestion of food or water contaminated from an infected person. The bacteria gets into the water you use for drinking or washing food.
A person may become an asymptomatic carrier of typhoid fever, suffering no symptoms, but capable of infecting others. Approximately 5% of people who contract typhoid continue to carry the disease after they recover. The most notorious carrier of typhoid fever was Mary Mallon, also known as Typhoid Mary. In 1907, she became the first American carrier to be identified and traced. She was a cook in New York; some believe she was the source of infection for several hundred people. She is closely associated with forty-seven cases and three deaths. Public health authorities told Mary to give up working as a cook or have her gall bladder removed. Mary quit her job but returned later under a false name. She was detained and quarantined after another typhoid outbreak. She died of pneumonia after 26 years in quarantine.
Yellow Fever: An acute viral disease that is frequently severe and has been a source of several devastating epidemics. French soldiers were attacked by yellow fever during the 1802 Haitian Revolution; more than half of the army perished from the disease. Outbreaks followed by thousands of deaths occurred periodically in other Western Hemisphere locations. As of 2001, the World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that yellow fever causes 200,000 illnesses and 30,000 deaths every year.
Symptoms: The virus first replicates locally, followed by transportation to the rest of the body via the lymphatic system. Following systemic lymphatic infection the virus proceeds to establish itself throughout organ systems, including the heart, kidneys, adrenal glands, and the parenchyma of the liver; high viral loads are also present in the blood. Necrotic masses appear in the cytoplasm of hepatocytes.
Transmission: Human infection begins after deposition of viral particles through the skin in infected arthropod (commonly mosquito's) saliva.
Smallpox: An acute infectious disease unique to humans. Smallpox localizes in small blood vessels of the skin and in the mouth and throat. In the skin, this results in a characteristic maculopapular rash, and later, raised fluid-filled blisters.
Believed to have emerged in human populations about 10,000 BC. The disease killed an estimated 400,000 Europeans each year during the 18th century , and was responsible for a third of all blindness. Between 20 and 60% of all those infected—and over 80% of infected children—died from the disease.
During the 20th century, it is estimated that smallpox was responsible for 300–500 million deaths. As recently as 1967, the World Health Organization (WHO) estimated that 15 million people contracted the disease and that two million died in that year. After successful vaccination campaigns throughout the 19th and 20th centuries, the WHO certified the eradication of smallpox in 1979. To this day, smallpox is the only human infectious disease to have been completely eradicated from nature. Unfortunately, the ever growing threat of a biological attack on a very high percent of an unvaccinated world population could possibly change that.
Symptoms: Causes an extensive rash and higher fever. By the second day of the rash, the macules become raised papules. By the third or fourth day the papules fill with an opalescent fluid to become vesicles. This fluid becomes opaque and turbid within 24–48 hours, giving them the appearance of pustules; however, the so-called pustules are filled with tissue debris, not pus.
By the sixth or seventh day, all the skin lesions have become pustules. Between 7 and 10 days the pustules mature and reach their maximum size. The pustules are sharply raised, typically round, tense, and firm to the touch. The pustules are deeply embedded in the dermis, giving them the feel of a small bead in the skin. Fluid slowly leaks from the pustules, and by the end of the second week the pustules deflate, and start to dry up, forming crusts (or scabs). By day 16-20 scabs have formed over all the lesions, which have started to flake off, leaving de-pigmented scars.
The distribution of the rash is densest on the face; more dense on the extremities than on the trunk; and on the extremities, more dense on the distal parts than on the proximal. The palms of the hands and soles of the feet are involved in the majority of cases. In some cases, the blisters merge together into sheets, forming a confluent rash, which begin to detach the outer layers of skin from the underlying flesh.
Transmission: Occurs through inhalation of airborne variola virus, usually droplets expressed from the oral, nasal, or pharyngeal mucosa of an infected person. It is transmitted from one person to another primarily through prolonged face-to-face contact with an infected person, usually within a distance of 6 feet, but can also be spread through direct contact with infected bodily fluids or contaminated objects (fomites) such as bedding or clothing. Rarely, smallpox has been spread by virus carried in the air in enclosed settings such as buildings, buses, and trains. The virus can cross the placenta, but the incidence of congenital smallpox is relatively low.
AKA: “Project Blue” (the official code name for the developmental project of the virus)
A deadly, flu-based virus. A form of super-flu (influenza), that is believed to have originated in an American biological weapons laboratory. Rumored to have been created by breeding a hybrid of influenza and an AIDS-like illness. 99.4% of the human population is vulnerable and the disease is universally and swiftly fatal to those that catch it. Causes a lethally high fever and is highly contagious. So deadly because as the body fights off the disease, it mutates into different strains of influenza, making immunity next to impossible.
The Masque of the Red Death:
A disease that was stolen from a former Soviet biological warfare laboratory. Rumored to have been weaponized for use as a biological warfare agent shortly after the end of Cold War. It is transmitted by direct contact with infected body fluids, or to a lesser extent, skin or mucus membrane contact. Causes convulsive agony from sharp pains. Quickly follow by dizziness, extreme fever and then profuse bleeding at the pores. The disease literally sweats its victims to death. The extreme fever causes the body to conserve its fluids and sweating is stopped. The fever then increases forcing the body to over compensate its reaction to the further rise in body temperature. In a last desparate attempt to cool the skin and lower the bodies core temperature bleeding begins from all of the pores. This quickly leads to death. After the disease has run its course, the victims face is left with the appearance of a reddish mask from the dried blood.
The Zombie Virus
An initial outbreak in Beijing, China was believed to have been covered up in late 2007. Only to resurface months later in Delhi, India. Proving that this virus, once thought to be only of a myth, is indeed quite real. Solanum is neither water-borne nor airborne. It can only be transmitted through direct fluid contact, such as a bite or pressing an open wound against a zombie. In which case the virus is 100% communicable with a 100% mortality rate. The virus travels to the brain and rapidly dissolves the frontal lobes. All life processes are stopped, except for musculature. Over the next 24 hours, it converts the brain of human victims into a specialized organ that needs no oxygen, water, or food to survive, and it renders body tissues toxic, significantly slowing the decomposition rate. Then begins to control movement of the body, resulting in a zombie.
Goldiepox (credit to "scivias" for the name)
AKA: Goldiepox and the Three Days
Mutated form of smallpox. A highly contagious airborne virus with an extremely short incubation period. Its early symptoms are an extensive rash and high fever. Within hours the rash becomes raised papules. If the disease progresses to the second day the papules fill with a fluid to become vesicles. This fluid turns a golden color, giving them the appearance of pustules; however, the so-called pustules are filled with skin debris, not pus. By the third day, all the golden skin lesions begin to merge together into sheets, forming a confluent rash, which begin to detach the outer layers of skin from the underlying flesh. Over the course of three agonizing days the entire flesh has broke out in a rash, become infected, rotted and finally detached itself from the body. Goldiepox has a 90% mortality rate.
Edited for typos.(sure there will be more to come)
- Last edited Tue Apr 15, 2008 12:48 am (Total Number of Edits: 4)
- Posted Sat Mar 22, 2008 5:15 pm
I have been thinking of blue as Anthrax.
I do not run and hide... I strategically maneuver.
As threads on infectious diseases go, this one is kind of a downer...
Salt Lake City
I knew I shouldn't have eaten before reading this...
Too band the blocks don't have little legs to wander around the game board while playing...
I have to agree that I am not quite sure that blue is Avian Flu. I think Anthrax or perhaps TB. I think it even looks more like the Plague than it does Avian Flu. I think that Ebola, Thypoid, and Small Pox are pretty much for sure from the pictures.
Hey! Watch where you point that thing :)
As threads on infectious diseases go, this one is kind of a downer...
Yeah it's strange how talking about the details of infectious diseases can really put a damper on ones mood
That's why I added the fictional diseasese to the list. The diseases of Stephen King, Edgar Allan Poe, and Max Brooks seem a perfect fit in keeping with the theme of Pandemic while at the same time lessening the reality of the diseases.
But then again you could always play as if, "oh my it looks as if the little red wooden cubes are really beginning to spread"
I like to call the blue disease "a case of the blues". As in "aw, it looks like someone in St Petersburg just came down with a case of the blues". And when an outbreak occurs, it's everyone around getting bummed out by the original guy's moping around.
I would like to put forward "Go-bloots" from I Love Lucy as the dreaded Blue Disease.
Don't forget the Dreaded Lurgy http://www.worldwidewords.org/qa/qa-dre1.htm
We Americans don't hear the word much, but one of the Harry Potter books refers to "Loser's Lurgy" afflicting a Quiddich team.