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Subject: Attack of the Twins rss

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John So-And-So
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I have a question for the scientists. Are a pair of clones any different from a pair of identical twins?
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Dwayne Hendrickson
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Not a scientist but my thought is this.

Twins = different DNA
Clones = Same DNA

You're welcome
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I thought that identical twins had identical DNA, but Wikipedia pointed me here: http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/23276953/

Quote:
Still, researchers have largely assumed that identical twins are genetically identical, reasoning that any variations between them were due to solely environmental factors. For instance, the fingerprints of identical twins diverge because they each experience slightly different conditions in their shared time in the womb.

Now scientists find that when it comes to the genetics of identical twins, unexpectedly "there in fact are tiny differences and that they are relatively common," said researcher Jan Dumanski, a molecular geneticist at the University of Alabama at Birmingham.

In the new study, researchers analyzed 19 pairs of identical twins. Although they did possess nearly identical genomes, closer study revealed they often differed in the number of copies of individual gene segments. For instance, one twin might be missing a segment, or possess more copies of that segment than the other twin.
 
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John So-And-So
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okiedokie wrote:
Not a scientist but my thought is this.

Twins = different DNA
Clones = Same DNA

You're welcome


Thanks, but I was looking for the right answer.
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John So-And-So
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ElAdoranSureshot wrote:
I thought that identical twins had identical DNA, but Wikipedia pointed me here: http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/23276953/

Thanks, that was interesting. But wouldn't these same variations pop up in a clone?

I'm not talking about sci-fi clones made in a vat or something. I was under the impression they make clones by basically an artifical duplication of the same process that causes identical twins. Maybe that's way off though.
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I'm not really into genetics, but I'd say that the only difference is that identical twins have developed at the same time, while clones don't. Minor differences due to imperfections in DNA replications are going to be pretty similar in both cases.
 
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Marshall P.
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"Nothing in Biology Makes Sense Except in the Light of Evolution" - Theodosius Dobzhansky
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CapAp wrote:
I have a question for the scientists. Are a pair of clones any different from a pair of identical twins?


No. Unless you want to be precise, then yes.

The main difference is going to be in mitochondrial DNA, which will match the egg donor NOT the cloned animal. In identical twins the mitochondrial DNA will be the same between the twins, because both twins get it from their mothers egg cell.

There will be slight (emphasis on slight) differences in nuclear DNA between the clone and the cloned animal, but this is true in identical twins too. Basically, when cells divide mutations can happen. Once the twin's cells split off each one will develop its own set of mutations.

Same thing for a clone, except that the original cell taken from the donor animal will have accumulated a certain amount of mutations that are slightly different from all the other cells in its body. Therefore, it's impossible to create a "perfect" clone of an animal because even the DNA in an animal's own cells aren't perfect copies of each other.

So, the twin's DNA won't match each other exactly, and neither will the clone's DNA match the donor exactly. But these are very small difference. Probably for all intents and purposes you could say their nuclear DNA is the same.

The mitochondrial DNA difference will be important if you're trying to trace ancestry, but it won't be important to the functioning of the clone.
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I was a twin.

But I killed him.

I killed him because, when we met, I knew that one day, if not that day, he would try to kill me.
 
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Dane Peacock
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mdp4828 wrote:

No. Unless you want to be precise, then yes.


Pretty much sums up every answer to every RSP question for the past two years.
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Jorge Montero
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CapAp wrote:
ElAdoranSureshot wrote:
I thought that identical twins had identical DNA, but Wikipedia pointed me here: http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/23276953/

Thanks, that was interesting. But wouldn't these same variations pop up in a clone?

I'm not talking about sci-fi clones made in a vat or something. I was under the impression they make clones by basically an artifical duplication of the same process that causes identical twins. Maybe that's way off though.


From a very strict perspective, it's quite likely that there's DNA differences between some of your own cells: Mutation can happen on any cell duplication. It's through an accumulation of some of those mutations that we get wonderful things like cancer: A cell mutates in such way that it reproduces endlessly and refuses to die off. Without mutation in adult cells, either by normal errors caused by extensive replication or means that increase the rate of mutation, cancer would not exist.
 
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Jorge Montero
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mdp4828 wrote:
CapAp wrote:
I have a question for the scientists. Are a pair of clones any different from a pair of identical twins?


No. Unless you want to be precise, then yes.

The main difference is going to be in mitochondrial DNA, which will match the egg donor NOT the cloned animal. In identical twins the mitochondrial DNA will be the same between the twins, because both twins get it from their mothers egg cell..


That's what happens with our current cloning technique: Take someone else's egg, and insert new DNA in the nucleus. Other techniques could keep a host's mitochondrial DNA, and still be called cloning. For example, if we found a way to mess with the specialization of stem cells to recreate a fetus, we'd still call it cloning.
 
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