There is a rule in the 1965 edition of Operation that seems to have been removed in the late 90s edition (and current ones). Just in case you are not familiar with it, I'll share it with you here:
If a player drawing a DOCTOR card also has the SPECIALIST card for that operation, he gets TWO tries at performing the operation. His first try is for the DOCTOR card fee and the second try for the SPECIALIST card fee. If he fails both times, the DOCTOR card is returned to the bottom of the pile, but he keeps the SPECIALIST card.
Obviously, this rule doesn't make a whole lot of sense. A player would happily be unsuccessful the first time on the DOCTOR's fee, in order to attempt a successful operation at the SPECIALIST fee.
The way I play the game is that if you have the SPECIALIST and DOCTOR card, you can operate once at the SPECIALIST fee. Seems like a good enough bonus, without giving that player too much of an advantage.
I find it strange that Hasbro decided to delete the rule, rather than modify it.
I just bought this and there is no specification about what to do in this case either way.