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Subject: Pictorial AAR of a Solo Refight of the Battle of Issus (333 BC) rss

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Wikipedia wrote:
The Battle of Issus occurred in southern Anatolia, in November 333 BC. The invading troops, led by the young Alexander of Macedonia, defeated the army personally led by Darius III of Achaemenid Persia in the second great battle for primacy in Asia. After Alexander's forces successfully forced a crossing of the Hellespont (the Dardanelles) and defeated the Persian satraps led by a Greek mercenary, Memnon of Rhodes, in a prior encounter, the Battle of the Granicus, Darius took personal charge of his army, gathered a large army from the depths of the empire, and maneuvered to cut the Macedonian line of supply, requiring Alexander to countermarch his forces, setting the stage for the battle near the mouth of the Pinarus River and south of the town of Issus.

After filling the wiki page "Lost Battles" with reports of refights found on BGG or elsewhere I noticed that there is no report for the Battle of Issus (333 BC), so I decided to give this scenario a try.
The following session report contains notes and photos of a solo refight of this battle. It should contain enough details to retrace every movement, attack and die roll. I made some errors during the refight, but since none of them affected the current situation when I noticed them, I adjusted the notes afterwards. Please reply here if you spot any further mistakes or if you just want to say that you enjoyed the ride.

FV
CP
L..
A..
V..
.LC
.HC
.LI
.HI
.HO
.PH
Abbreviations:
Fighting Value
Command Points
Levy ...
Average ...
Veteran ...
... Light Cavalry
... Heavy Cavalry
... Light Infantry
... Heavy Infantry
... Hoplite Infantry
... Phalanx Infantry



Turn 1: Historical Deployment

Attack limit: 4

Persian Army:
White counters
FV: 68
Generals: Darius III of Persia (timid leader)

Macedon Army:
Black counters
FV: 89
Generals: Alexander the Great (brilliant leader), Parmenio of Macedon (average commander)

historical deployment


Persian Turn 2 (FV 68, 6+2 CP)

1CP: LHC in right rear relocates to rear, so the rest of the group can enter the river in the right centre without violating the stacking limit.
2CP: Group in the right rear advances to deny Macedon the right centre to avoid a morale penalty.
2CP: Group in the right wing advances to protect the flank against the VHC.
(only 1CP left, rolling a die results in 2 additional CP)
2CP (Darius' exemption): Express activate his guard AHC to relocate to the left rear, expecting an attack by Alexander.
2CP: LLI in the left wing advances into the hills to prevent the attack bonus for attacking into a river tile.
(1CP stays unused)

after Persian turn 2


Macedon Turn 2 (FV 89, 8+2 CP)

2CP (Alexander's exemption): Group in the right centre advances into the river, challenging Darius.
1CP: Group in the rear advances to the centre to be able to attack into the river tile if the Persians should enter their key zone.
2CP (Parmenio's exemption): Group in the left centre attacks into the river:
  ALI attacks the LLI, Parmenio gives an attack bonus (worth 2CP): dice result 3+3 + modifier +4 = 10, making the LLI spent, AHC takes the lead.
  AHC attacks the AHC: dice result 3+5 + modifier +0 = 8, resulting in one hit, fresh AHC takes the lead.
1CP: VHC group in the left flank attacks the Persian cavalry along the shoreline:
  VHC attacks the AHC, 1CP for an attack bonus: dice result 1+2 + modifier +2 = 5, resulting in nothing except laughter on the side of the Persians.
  VHC attacks the AHC, 2CP for an attack bonus: dice result 2+4 + modifier +0 = 6, resulting in water splashing at the shoreline.
1CP: ALC in the hills attacks the LLI, 1CP for an attack bonus: dice result 2+4 + modifier +2 = 8, resulting in rolling stones.
(only 1CP left, rolling a die results in 2 additional CP)
2CP: Express activation, APH in the left rear relocates to the rear to reinforce the centre in a later turn (but this will not happen).
1CP: AHI in the left rear joins Parmenio.

after Macedon turn 2


Persian Turn 3 (FV 68, 6+1 CP)

2CP (Darius' exemption): Group in the left rear attacks into the river:
  LLI attacks VLI, Darius gives an attack bonus (worth 2CP): dice result 2+5 + modifier +3 = 10, making the VLI spent, VHI takes the lead.
  AHC (Darius' guard unit) attacks VHI: dice result 3+6 + modifier +1 = 10, making the VHI spent, VHC takes the lead.
1CP: Limited activation, right flank attacks along the shoreline:
  AHC attacks the VHC, 2CP for an attack bonus: dice result 2+2 + modifier +2 = 6, again no hit at the shoreline.
2CP: Group in the right centre attacks Parmenio's tile, one AHO in the lead to try to break the ALI screen:
  (only 1CP left, rolling a die results in 1 additional command)
  AHO attacks the ALI: dice result 1+2 + modifier +1 = 4, no hit.
  AHC attacks the ALI: dice result 5+6 + modifier +0 = 11, only one hit, because the ALI is supported by AHI on a fresh tile, AHC takes the lead.
  AHO attacks the AHC: dice result 2+5 + modifier +0 = 7, no hit.
2CP: Group in the left flank boldly turns right to attack Alexander's group at the river:
  LLI attacks the VHC: dice result 5+5 + modifier +2 = 12, two hits!
  Alexander tries to rally the first hit to the VHC: dice result 2+6=8, success!
  Alexander tries to rally the second hit to the VHC: dice result 3+6=9, success again!
  LLI attacks the VHC: dice result 2+3 + modifier -1 = 4, no hit.

after Persian turn 3


Macedon Turn 3 (FV 89, 8+6 CP)

2CP (Alexander's exemption): Group on Alexander's tile attacks the Persian left rear:
  Alexander leads the VHC against the LLI, giving two attack bonuses (worth 2CP): dice result 3+5 + modifier +4 = 12, shattering the LLI, AHC takes the lead.
  (clarification: only one hit should have been inflicted on the LLI due to rule 6.4)
  Morale test: die roll of 2 = 1, routing the spent LLI in the right centre.
  (clarification: this LLI should not have routed, because it was 3 tiles away from the shattering unit)
  VHC attacks the AHC, Alexander gives an attack bonus (worth 2CP): dice result 2+5 + modifier +1 = 8, making the AHC spent, another AHC takes the lead.
  VHC attacks the AHC, 2CP for an attack bonus: dice result 4+6 + modifier +1 = 11, making both remaining AHCs spent, LHI takes the lead.
  VHI attacks the LHI, 2CP for an attack bonus: dice result 2+5 + modifier +2 = 9, no hit.
  VLI attacks the LHI (allowed due to adjacent enemy units), 2CP for an attack bonus: dice result 1+2 + modifier +2 = 5, no hit.
2CP (Parmenio's exemption): Group in the left centre attacks into the river:
  AHC attacks the AHO, Parmenio gives an attack bonus (worth 2CP): dice result 3+6 + modifier +4 = 13, two hits making the AHO and AHC spent, AHO takes the lead.
  AHI attacks the AHO, 2CP for an attack bonus: dice result 2+4 + modifier +1 = 7, no hit.
  (no CP left, rolling a die results in 6 additional CP)
  AHI attacks the AHO, 2CP for an attack bonus: dice result 5+6 + modifier +1 = 12, making a voluntary all-out attack to make both AHOs spent.
1CP: VHC group in the left flank attacks the Persians cavalry along the shoreline:
  VHC attacks the AHC, 1CP for an attack bonus: dice result 3+3 + modifier +3 = 9, making the AHC spent, another AHC takes the lead.
  VHC attacks the AHC: dice result 3+5 + modifier +0 = 8, making another AHC spent, LHC takes the lead.
1CP: ALC in the hills attacks the LLI, 1CP for an attack bonus: dice result 2+3 + modifier +2 = 7, no hit, but more rolling stones.

after Macedon turn 3


Persian Turn 4 (FV 64, 6+2 CP)

2CP (Darius' exemption): Group in the left rear attacks into the river:
  LHI attacks VHC (Alexander's guard unit), Darius gives an attack bonus (worth 2CP): dice result 2+4 + modifier +3 = 9, one hit.
  Alexander fails to rally (2+4=6), another VHC takes the lead.
  LHI attacks VHC, 2CP for an attack bonus: dice result 4+6 + modifier +1 = 11, making a voluntary all-out attack for two hits.
  Alexander tries to rally the first hit to the VHC: dice result 4+6=10, success!
  Alexander tries to rally the second hit to the VHC: dice result 1+4=5, the VHC becomes spent, the last fresh VHC takes the lead.
  LHI attacks VHC, 2CP for an attack bonus: dice result 2+3 + modifier +1 = 6, no hit.
  AHC attacks VHC: dice result 2+4 + modifier -1 = 6, no hit.
1CP: Limited activation, LLI in the left flank attacks Alexander's group at the river:
  (only 1CP left, rolling a die results in 2 additional CP)
  LLI attacks the VHC: dice result 4+5 + modifier +3 = 12, two hits!
  Alexander tries to rally the first hit to the VHC: dice result 1+3=4, the VHC becomes spent, the already spent VLI takes the lead.
  Alexander tries to rally the second hit to the VLI: dice result 3+3=6, the VLI shatters! The spent VHI takes the lead.
  The Persians are cheering, but a morale test is not needed since no units can rout in this situation due to the troop quality.
1CP: Limited activation, right flank attacks along the shoreline:
  LHC attacks the VHC: dice result 2+2 + modifier +1 = 5, no hit.
2CP: Group in the right centre attacks Parmenio's tile:
  AHO attacks the AHC: dice result 1+6 + modifier +1 = 8, no hit.
  AHO attacks the AHC: dice result 1+2 + modifier +0 = 3, no hit.
  AHO attacks the AHC: dice result 1+4 + modifier +0 = 5, no hit.
  AHC attacks the AHC: dice result 3+6 + modifier -1 = 8, one hit, AHI takes the lead.

after Persian turn 4


Macedon Turn 4 (FV 85, 8+3 CP) announcing turn order reversal

2CP (Alexander's exemption): Group on Alexander's tile attacks the Persian left rear:
  Alexander leads the VHC against the LHI, giving two attack bonuses (worth 2CP): dice result 3+4 + modifier +4 = 11, making the LHI spent, the last fresh LHI takes the lead.
  VHC attacks the LHI, Alexander gives an attack bonus (worth 2CP): dice result 6+6 + modifier +2 = 14, shattering the LHI. A spent LHI takes the lead.
  Morale test: die roll of 6 = 3, no units rout.
  VHC attacks the LHI, 2CP for an attack bonus: dice result 2+5 + modifier +2 = 9, no hit.
  VHI attacks the LHI, 2CP for an attack bonus: dice result 2+5 + modifier +2 = 9, no hit.
2CP: Group in the centre advances into the river, taking the key zone.
1CP: VHC group in the left flank attacks the Persian cavalry along the shoreline:
  (only 1CP left, rolling a die results in 3 additional CP)
  VHC attacks the LHC, 1CP for an attack bonus: dice result 3+5 + modifier +4 = 12, two hits making the LHC and LLC spent, the LLC takes the lead.
  VHC attacks the LLC, 2CP for an attack bonus: dice result 1+6 + modifier +3 = 10, shattering the LLC. A spent AHC takes the lead.
  Morale test: die roll of 6 = 3, no units rout.
2CP (Parmenio's exemption): Group in the left centre attacks into the river:
  AHI attacks the AHO, Parmenio gives an attack bonus (worth 2CP): dice result 1+2 + modifier +3 = 6, no hit.
  AHC attacks the AHO: dice result 1+6 + modifier +0 = 7, no hit.
  AHI attacks the AHO: dice result 2+6 + modifier +0 = 8, no hit.
1CP: ALC in the hills attacks the LLI: dice result 6+6 + modifier +1 = 13, two hits shattering the LLI.
  Morale test: die roll of 4 = 2, -1 = 1 (4 units have been shattered).
  The fresh LLI in the hills withdraws, all units on Darius' tile and on the shoreline rout.
  The ALC advances into the Persian left flank.

after Macedon turn 4

Darius and large parts of the Persian army have fled the field


Macedon Turn 5 (FV 85, 8+2 CP) reversed turn order

2CP: Group in the Persian centre attacks the camp:
  VHI attacks the AHO, 1CP for an attack bonus: dice result 4+6 + modifier +1 = 11, one hit. Making the AHO spent, another AHO takes the lead.
  APH supported by another APH attacks the AHO, 2CP for an attack bonus: dice result 4+4 + modifier +2 = 10, one hit. Making the AHO spent, the last fresh AHO takes the lead.
  APH attacks the AHO, 2CP for an attack bonus: dice result 1+3 + modifier +1 = 5, no hit.
  (only 1CP left, rolling a die results in 2 additional CP)
  APH attacks the AHO: dice result 1+3 + modifier +1 = 5, no hit.
  AHI attacks the AHO: dice result 3+5 + modifier +0 = 8, no hit.
1CP: Express activation, VHC in the left flank moves into the right rear of the Persians.
1CP: Express activation, second VHC in the left flank moves next to the first.
1CP: ALC in the hills moves into the left rear of the Persians.
2CP (Alexander's exemption): The three VHC on Alexander's tile follow the ALC.

after Macedon turn 5


Persian Turn 5 (FV 32, 3+1 CP)

2CP: Group in the right centre attacks Parmenio's tile:
  (only 1CP left, rolling a die results in 1 additional command)
  AHO attacks the AHI: dice result 5+5 + modifier +1 = 11, making the AHI spent. It stays in the lead.
  AHO attacks the AHI: dice result 1+4 + modifier +0 = 5, no hit.
  AHO attacks the AHI: dice result 4+4 + modifier +0 = 8, no hit.
  AHC attacks the AHI: dice result 1+6 + modifier -1 = 6, no hit.
2CP: Group in the rear attacks the units at the river:
  Fresh AHO attacks the VHI: dice result 3+5 + modifier +3 = 11, making the VHI spent, an AHI takes the lead.
  AHO attacks the AHI: dice result 4+6 + modifier +0 = 10, making the AHI spent, an APH takes the lead.
  AHO attacks the APH: dice result 4+6 + modifier +0 = 10, making the APH spent, another APH takes the lead.
  LHI attacks the APH: dice result 6+6 + modifier +0 = 12, performing an all-out attack, making two APHs spent.

after Persian turn 5


Macedon Turn 6 (FV 85, 8+? CP)

2CP (Parmenio's exemption): Group in the left centre attacks into the river:
  AHI attacks the AHO, Parmenio gives an attack bonus (worth 2CP): dice result 4+6 + modifier +3 = 13, shattering the AHO and an AHC.
  Morale test: die roll of 1+2 = 1, -1 = 0 (6 units have been shattered).
  All remaining Persian units withdraw (4 units in the camp) or rout.

after Macedon turn 6

The image shows an an error I made when applying the morale results:
Five Persian units (and Darius) are withdrawn, not routed, because they were fresh when they panicked.
This is corrected in the report and scoring.


Final Score:

Persian victory score:
FV of spent/withdrawn/routed/shattered enemy units: 44
Number of routed enemy units: 0
FV of shattered enemy units: 4
Handicap: 45
Total: 93

Macedon victory score:
FV of spent/withdrawn/routed/shattered enemy units: 68
Number of routed enemy units: 15
FV of shattered enemy units: 14
Handicap: 0
Total: 97

Victory threshold: 40-(89-68)=19

Macedon won by 4 points, a narrow game victory.

Making of

I have seen many photos where the green on the river tiles is different from the green in the plains, so I wanted to show that not all copies expose this problem. To avoid blur I used an ironing-board on two crates as a makeshift camera stand, my smartphone fits perfectly into the tray for the flat iron.
After I did the setup I decided to not only take the photo, but actually do a refight of this battle. I had the option to keep the setup on the dinner table for some days, so I fought this battle at a very slow pace, thinking about every step I take, and of course taking notes and photos along the way.
It was very enjoyable, but I am sure that I do not want to create another session report with this level of detail any time soon


Edits:
- Corrections and clarifications as mentioned in a later reply.
- Corrected typo in Persian Turn 4: 6+1 CP → 6+2 CP
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David
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Great AAR. That would have taken some effort to put together.
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Alexandros Boucharelis
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Thanks for the AAR, this will be helpful when i 'll try my 1st solo battle meeple
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Philip Sabin
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Great AAR Thomas! You are quite right that it can take a lot of effort to cover a battle in such exhaustive detail. Patrick Waterson went to the ultimate extreme in his account of the Granicus (in the files section of the Yahoo site), which reached 20,000 words as he discussed every nuance and tactical trade-off!

I have not had time to go through your details exhaustively, but I did notice a few points for your consideration:

- if you want to make the pictures bigger so that people can see them without clicking on each one, you should be able to do so by editing your post and appending the word 'medium' after the number of each image, so that [imageXXXXX] becomes [imageXXXXXXmedium].

- Alexander counts as brilliant rather than inspired at this battle.

- on turn 2, both sides could if desired have activated some cavalry separately in their right centres to charge forward and put in an initial attack, and then reinforced them with infantry using a separate activation.

- on Macedonian turn 3, you have the LLI with Darius shattered by a double hit, but it looks to me as if all units in the tile are fresh and hence they should suffer only a single hit because of the supporting LHI. Even if they had been shattered, the spent LLI in the right centre are more than 2 zones away, so should just avoid panic with a morale of 0.

- on Persian turn 4, you have the spent VLI with Alexander returning to the lead, and Alex trying to rally them. Neither of these are allowed, as stated in rules 6.4 and 8.5.

- on Macedonian turn 4, you note the announcement of turn reversal, but this need not actually occur until the start of turn 5.

- on Macedonian turn 5, you write VHI when you mean VHC.

- in the victory calculation, it would be clearer if you added 'shattered' to the first line for each side, since shattered units need to be counted twice when using this approach.

One of the great merits of such detailed AARs is that they allow rules misconceptions to be picked up, so thanks for giving the opportunity for this!

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pagsab wrote:
- if you want to make the pictures bigger so that people can see them without clicking on each one, you should be able to do so by editing your post and appending the word 'medium' after the number of each image, so that [imageXXXXX] becomes [imageXXXXXXmedium].

I thought about doing that, but then decided against it for the following wrong reason: I thought people could change the default image size in their preferences to medium, but I just verified that 1. the default is medium and 2. it does not apply to images embedded in forum posts, but just when viewing images directly. I just changed it.
pagsab wrote:
- Alexander counts as brilliant rather than inspired at this battle.

I played him that way (turn reversal), just used the wrong term here. Fixed.
pagsab wrote:
- on turn 2, both sides could if desired have activated some cavalry separately in their right centres to charge forward and put in an initial attack, and then reinforced them with infantry using a separate activation.

This kind of strategy hint is exactly what I am looking for when reading other AARs!
pagsab wrote:
- on Macedonian turn 3, you have the LLI with Darius shattered by a double hit, but it looks to me as if all units in the tile are fresh and hence they should suffer only a single hit because of the supporting LHI. Even if they had been shattered, the spent LLI in the right centre are more than 2 zones away, so should just avoid panic with a morale of 0.

I thought this partial immunity does not apply to levy units due to rule 6.6 ("if two hits are scored against a fresh levy unit, that levy unit must absorb both hits itself"), maybe the word "inflicted" instead of "scored" would have been more clear here. I added clarifications to both lines.
pagsab wrote:
- on Persian turn 4, you have the spent VLI with Alexander returning to the lead, and Alex trying to rally them. Neither of these are allowed, as stated in rules 6.4 and 8.5.

I did not know/remember this until now.
pagsab wrote:
- on Macedonian turn 4, you note the announcement of turn reversal, but this need not actually occur until the start of turn 5.

I read 8.7 ("You must announce turn reversal at the very start of the turn") as at the start of the first of the two consecutive turns, because 1. without the turn reversal there would not be a second turn, so no "start of the turn" and 2. bookkeeping with "Attack Made" markers has to start in the first of the two consecutive turns. Additionally I think this should be similar to the roll for extra commands: The roll happens when you only have 0 or 1 commands left, so you cannot plan with them. Likewise you should not know how the first of the two turns evolves when announcing turn reversal.
And I might consider it rude if I would be the Persian player, almost starting to move the first unit, when the Macedon player shouts "STOP! Turn reversal!". Of course waiting for the Macedon player to say "I am finished with my turn" would be polite, too
pagsab wrote:
- on Macedonian turn 5, you write VHI when you mean VHC.

Fixed.
pagsab wrote:
- in the victory calculation, it would be clearer if you added 'shattered' to the first line for each side, since shattered units need to be counted twice when using this approach.

Changed to "spent/withdrawn/routed/shattered". Actually this is the first time I calculated the victory points. Before this refight I only played for playing, not for the result, and skipped counting to save some time.
pagsab wrote:
One of the great merits of such detailed AARs is that they allow rules misconceptions to be picked up, so thanks for giving the opportunity for this!

Thank you very much for your comments!
 
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Philip Sabin
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You're welcome. The confusion over LLI double hits is a classic example of what can happen when two special rules interact. The more examples and AARs that are produced, the more such misperceptions may be identified and corrected.

You are welcome to require an earlier declaration of turn reversal if you wish, but the published rules only require this at the start of turns proper, as is made clear in 3.3. Note that it is legitimate for brilliant generals to reverse the order at the very start of battles using historical deployments. Scipio may wish to do this at Ilipa to try to seize the enemy right and left centre zones before they can be reinforced.
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This AAR prompted me to refight Issus. I fought two battles both going the way of the Macedonians after handicap. It seems a real tough one for the Persians. I found Alexander and his Companions formidable when combined with his ability to reverse turn order. In both battles they were decisive in breaking the Persians.

In the second battle the strong Persian right flank cavalry was even able to eliminate the veteran heavy cavalry on the Macedonian left flank. However they were not able to capitalise on the breakthrough in time. Their subsequent attacks into the flank of the Macedonians were not able to break them before Alexander and his companions got into the Persian camp.

I'm going to start using optional rule 9.5 from hereon in. In both battles the Persians were hampered by command dice rolls of 1, and I continue to roll ones for 60 to 70% of morale rolls. It's driving me bananas.
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Snowman wrote:
This AAR prompted me to refight Issus.
[...]
I'm going to start using optional rule 9.5 from hereon in. In both battles the Persians were hampered by command dice rolls of 1, and I continue to roll ones for 60 to 70% of morale rolls.

Yes, it seems the dice included in Lost Battles favour one side in this battle
The command rolls from my refight:
Persian: 2+1+2+1 = 6 (with rule 9.5 it would have been 10)
Macedon: 2+6+3+2 = 13 (with rule 9.5 it would have been 11)

But looking at the details:
Two more commands in Persian turn 3 would have made no difference. After the command roll an attack bonus would only have helped the fresh AHO attacking the fresh AHC, and this would have been an all-out attack hit instead of a miss.
In Macedon turn 3 I would not have given an attack bonus in the attacks made from the left flank and the hills, no difference here either.
In Persian turn 5 I would probably have used the two commands for an attack bonus in the first attack, but it was already a hit and since the AHO was already spent, it would not have been an all-out double hit.
So despite giving four more commands to the Persian side and two less to the Macedon side, it would probably have made no difference. The only exception would be that I could have planned with at least two extra commands guaranteed instead of one, so maybe I would have acted differently before rolling for commands, but I usually plan with having at least two extra commands anyway, because this is should be true with a probability of 5/6th.
 
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