My boyfriend and I have been playing a lot of games over the last few months, and I've really been enjoying learning them and figuring out strategies, etc. The games I've played and really enjoyed so far are Seven Wonders, Dominion and the Elder Sign. I just played Ticket to Ride Europe the other day and really liked that, too.
The thing is, all the games we've been learning to play are games he's played many times and is teaching me. That's fine because he's a good teacher and I pick things up quickly, but it means that I'm inevitably always losing or always trying to learn while he's trying to win.
We agreed that it'd be really good to get a game that would be new for both of us, and even though I know he'll still have the edge because he's played more than I have, I think it'd be really fun to figure one out together.
I think we both like 7 Wonders and Dominion the most, so if you all have any suggestions for something that might be good for both of us to learn that'd be great!
Try those ones:
Agricola (If it's too complicated, there's family rules)
Kingdom Builder ( same designer as dominion)
Settlers Of Catan
I think you'll find something that will interest you and your boyfriend in there.
You could try Ascension: Deckbuilding Game or Ascension: Storm of Souls. Both are deck-building games, but are more interactive than Dominion (in a friendly face-to-face way).
Another really great 2-player game is Summoner Wars: Master Set, but it is more of a head to head tactical battle. Fun game though, and easy to learn. A variety of factions gives you lots of replayability.
For something more portable, take a look at Biblios. It has an auction mechanic in it, and will play 2 to 4 players very well. This last suggestion is probably my favourite one.
Since you listed 7 Wonders and Dominion as your favorites, you might want to try some other good card games.
Here are some good 2 player card games:
BattleCON: War of Indines
Ascension: Deckbuilding Game
Race for the Galaxy
Omen: A Reign of War
It depends a bit on what you're looking for. If you want direct player interaction, BattleCON, Innovation, Omen, and Hemloch are good choices. If you want to be able to build up your own thing, and compare points at the end, then Race for the Galaxy and Ascension are solid choices. They both have player interaction, but it is more muted than in the other games I've listed.
When asking "What would Jesus do?", remember that flipping over tables and using a whip are within the realm of possibilities.
Railways of the World
San Juan. Why? It's cheap, small boxed, and travels well. It also uses a role mechanic where if one player picks a role, everybody gets to use that role as well. The player who picks the role, however, does get an advantage within that role. If after playing it you decide you want something deeper, there is its bigger brother Puerto Rico or something more towards the sci-fi in Race for the Galaxy.
Morels. It mimics walking through a forest collecting mushrooms which you can cook or sell.
Both games are light on direct interaction where you can screw overt the other player. Most of the games you listed were the same way.