Chris Mazur
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Hello! I'm currently working on a turn/round system for 2-6 players that keeps each player in the game fairly often, and morale system for the game with a rather disparate array of how certain units and creatures react when their morale is broken. The game is going to be mostly used as a war game, but I'm hoping to make the system diverse enough for other things should players choose to adapt it (what comes to mind immediately is something like Railroad Tycoon).

The turn/round system is fairly simple, as it's based on a solid principle (Phases and Active Players). My only worries for it are getting bogged down in the resolution phase - it has turned out to be a non-issue so far, as it only affects one or two small things, and really amounts to "a player rolls a couple dice for effects dice just before the next player starts."

To begin the game, players decide on (or roll for randomly) what sort of initial setup they'll have - anything from the classic "two lines run at each other," to more freestyle "put your forces in this area" like warhammer. Objectives will be based on another choice or randomization - This part doesn't really need help, as I can pull from the tried and true objectives that time has given us wargamers.

Once the initial setup is determined, Players roll off on 2D6's to see who goes first. This can be either at the beginning of the game, or at the start of each round in the beginning phase, depending on who has the fastest units available (as the if player 1 has the fastest character at the beginning of the game, there is no one to contest him until that character is dead!) and the winner of the roll-off gets to pick who goes first (himself for immediate play, or another if they want to sort of play the down-wind).

Players deploy their forces in activation order, and then the game begins with the first player.

In the beginning phase, players bring in resources from off-board if they have any, apply any blessings or curses if they have them, and attempt to regroup any of their units that have broken morale. Units can perform other actions, but this is the main schtick of the beginning phase.

The other phases (the tactical and Close Combat phases) provide similarly name-appropriate actions, such as shooting and moving and leading a charge - all that fancy warfare stuff - and then the Resolution Phase is something that was inspired much more by M:tG than wargaming.

The Resolution Phase happens between each activation - when the active player passes off, anyone whose assets changed during that players' activation goes ahead and resolves whatever morale (or other) effects have been applied to their units. This is intended to keep players' units from acting in a phase where they should be fleeing in terror, or charging in rage - i.e. it's used to update the game in pseudo-realtime.

The Damage System is somewhat inspired by Heroes of Might and Magic, and somewhat by Warhammer - though it's far more reliable, and can even be done without dice if players want. The attacking player rolls a D6 for each 'attack', and depending on the target's ranged or close combat Defense, that attack will only hit on a certain result (usually 3 or 4, but in rare cases 2/5, and in extreme cases, automatically hits, hits on a 6+, or can't hit at all). Each attack profile has a certain damage listed, and all of the damage from attacks at the same Armor Penetration value is added together. So, if a unit with 3 big guns and 3 small guns shoots at a target they hit automatically (say, the broad side of a barn), you would add up the damage from the big guns and the damage from the little guns separately.

Afterward, the part inspired by HoMM, is the 20-Tic; damage is broken into chunks of 20, and compared to Armour - effectively making armour penetration and armour into direct 5% modifiers for the damage. Heavily armoured vehicles and knight-tropes will be practically immune to weapons like small guns (though 1 damage for each 20-Tic is guaranteed, to speed gameplay), while big guns will have their effectiveness reduced against lightly armoured targets, as Armour normally can't go below 0.

The damage that goes through this system is subtracted from the units' durability (Basically a Health buffer) and when durability reaches 0, that unit loses 1 Health (humans have only 1 health!) Of course, units with 0 health die.

To add to this, units can be composed of multiple parts, like an infantry platoon or a swarm of bugs - similar to warhammer and HoMM. So, as the unit loses wounds, its effectiveness goes down.

It's... not as clunky as it looks. Dividing into 20-Tics is fast, and comparing Armour to AP is effortless. Most of the damages are in multiples of 5, as is durability, so what you end up with is a system that takes numbers like 345 (17 tics, we ignore the 5 unless AP+Dmg>Arm, as it will otherwise be negated) and tells you how much actual damage you take from 35% of that (119, into a durability of 5, is 23 dead humans and 1 lucky survivor!) in a couple simple steps.

The real problem I've been having has been implementing a proper morale system; On the one side, I have wargamers from historical wargaming wanting heavy suppression systems, which would greatly favour players who like fielding lots of small units (who can thereby simply suppress everyone else and take over). On the other side, I have players who dislike any form of morale, preferring to have brave and fearless heroes who stride through gunfire and carnage without flinching.

I decided to look to tropes for a nice, round variety of what kind of morales to include, and came up with the following system: Each unit has a grade of morale, from cowardly, average, good, excellent, and Fearless. (C,A,G,E,F). This determines how easily a unit will FAIL a morale test, which is simple enough. But then there's also the issue of the disparity between creatures - You don't expect a Soldier to break morale in the same way as a Space Bug does - The Soldier will run towards friendly troops or a supply line, or find a bunker to dig-in. A Space Bug will charge the enemy lines, or simply burrow where it is and hibernate. So then I had to devise modifiers;

Normal (what you'd expect humans to do), Heroic (For those shining paladins of light), Predatory (for the space bugs, and other creatures that you'd expect to get all in a tizzy), Craven (they'll run away, but if you stop chasing them they'll stab you in the back), and Robotic (Pretty much just shuts down).

The problem is - I don't have an actual mechanic for it. Should I do it like Warhammer, where a value is compared to 2D6? Or like FoW where it's on a single D6? Should I introduce other dice sizes, and use a set "Morale!" value, with each better grade of Morale getting a bigger die to roll against it?

tl;dr - Does anyone have experience in dealing with variable morale penalties (and how to apply them) in a system where units will be taking a broad range of damages? The basic idea is that I'd like small amounts of damage or casualties to affect groups less, while larger amounts will affect them more and more. (If possible, I'd also like to develop a system where large amounts of incoming fire will demoralize a unit, even if they don't take much damage from it)

I'll probably be expanding this post to gain feedback on the activation and actions system, as well as the unit profile blocks I'm hoping to use if I can get past these initial humps. I don't really have any worries about the game becoming 'too complex' as the player base is mostly into games with mechanical depths to plumb (mtg players and such). But I would like to make it feel somewhat warm and elegant, in comparison to the cold, sharp mechanics of mtg's "Comp Rules."

Thanks for reading if you got through that!

Edit: The following definitions were going to be spoilered, but the spoiler on this forum simply invisible's it, instead of putting it into a neat little tab.

Each Model has its own Statistics profile, made up of 11 Stats. The easiest way to relate to these Statistics is by looking at those of a human – More specifically, a Guard.

Name: Guard
Mv:5 Cs:5 St:5 At:1 Rs:5 Ev:5 Ag:5 Du:5 Hp:1 Ar:5 Mr:A/N

The Guard represents a human after a strict training regime – he is strong, fast, and tough. He obeys orders. Further explaining these Statistics, the next few paragraphs will compare a Human to the various creatures and races present in WARGAME

MOVEMENT (Mv):When determining how far a creature can move in general, the Movement Statistic is consulted. The higher the Movement, the faster a creature or vehicle is. A Guard has Mv 5, meaning he can Move up to 5”. Something more faster, like a Horse, might have Mv 8, allowing it to rapidly out-pace and out-maneuver our ground-pounder. Different forms of movement, such as Flying or Teleporting, will be described in the Movement section.

COMBAT SKILL (Cs): Combat Skill defines how skilled and vicious a warrior is with his weapons in close combat. The higher the score, the more likely the warrior will land blows on an opponent in close combat – and the more likely it is to dodge! Our Guard has Cs 5, a product of constant practice and drilling, while a Barbarian with decades of battle and training behind him will have WS 8!

STRENGTH (St): Strength shows how physically strong a creature is. St is mostly used for special rolls, such as escaping traps or moving objectives. For some creatures, St even tells us how hard they can hit in close combat. Guards have St 5, which, while not worthy of any awards, will let them escape a wrecked vehicle or wedge an axe into a foe!

ATTACKS (At): In the short amount of time each Close Combat Phase represents, most Guards only have time to let off a desperate chop or stab with whatever's at hand, or perhaps they're able to fire a couple shots with their pistols, or stuff a grenade down something's throat. The Attack value is how many attacks a creature makes in Close Combat.

RANGED SKILL (Rs): Ranged Skill shows how accurate a creature is with Ranged Attacks, such as bows, guns, or rockets. The higher this score is, the easier a creature finds it is to hit its target. The training provided to Guards with their Rifles grants Rs 5 – a deadly Elven Archer has much more of its training focused on accuracy, and much sharper eyesight – and so has BS 10.

EVASION (Ev): Evasion dictates the ability of a creature to avoid detection on the Battlefield – and their ability to dodge heavy zones of gunfire, incoming mortars, and other hazards from afar. Guards, with Ev 5, have a fair chance at dodging gunfire – especially once they've hit the dirt! However, Wraiths move throughout the Battlefield as dancers, drifting insubstantially through gunfire and flame with their obscene Ev 10.

AGILITY (Ag): A Model's Agility tells us both how agile and alert it is, and how quickly it reacts in the heat of battle. A Guard's AG 5 lets him be wary of many foes, at least enough to chuck a grenade and duck before a horde of Wolves (with I 8) are upon him! Ag dictates the order that Units are activated in, and the order Attacks are resolved at.

DURABILITY (Du): A creature's Durability tells us how much direct damage it can take before being injured. It's a combination of thick hide, stubborn willpower, and combat high – whether from adrenaline, or fouler substances. A Guard's Du 5 makes them great at protecting their Sergeant when present in numbers, as there's a lot of flesh to soak up any stray bullets that might happen his way! A Battle Tank might have Du 30, simply absorbing and ignoring most damage!

HEALTH POINTS (Hp): Simply put, when a creature runs out of Hp, it becomes a casualty. This doesn't always mean it's dead! It simply has no more fight left to give, and is removed from the Battlefield to reduce clutter. Some creatures, like Minotaurs, fight better when they've lost a number of Hp, their blood and pain spurring them onward – but our poor Guards have only 1 Hp to give.

MORALE (Mr): A Model's Morale shows us how well trained and resolute it is. The most complex Statistic, Mr has many modifiers that will alter how your Models and Units interact with the variety of situations to be found on the Battlefield. Following the trend, a Guard's Mr of A/N means he has an Average Morale, and reacts Normally when his Morale breaks. A feral Savage might have a Mr of F/P, which means he's Fearless, and breaking his Morale will only result in causing him to become even more Predatory!

ARMOUR (Ar): The best defense is to not be in the way of whatever's coming to kill you, but failing that, a sturdy suit of Full-Plate will do just fine! Unfortunately, Guards are equipped only with Leather Vests, and sent directly to the front line to protect the cavalry. Their Ar 5 means that only a small portion of Incoming Damage will be blocked before it rips into them – the mighty Ar 18 of a Knight Errant will block almost all incoming damage!

ZERO-LEVEL STATISTICS: Some models will have 0 for a Statistic; this means different things for different Statistics, and will be discussed later. Having 0 is different from having '-' for Statistics; a dash indicates that that Statistic is simply not used, such as Cs for a Bunker, or Mv for an outpost.

BRINGING IT ALL TOGETHER: The end product of a Model's Statistics is its Unit Profile. The Unit Profile lists how big that Unit can be, what types of Models it can be built with, or upgraded into, and what Wargears, Special Rules, and Unit Types it contains. Sample Profiles can be found later on when we discuss building your Army.
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Dylan Green
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Total shooting from the hip here:

What if there were a menu of morale failure effects that could happen to your units. Maybe it's on your faction's play-sheet. Maybe it's on the back of the unit card. A roll of the dice (I would recommend using the same core mechanic as you do for everything else) answers the question "Does this guy chicken out and panic" and, depending on how the roll went the "attacker" (The big scary space bug who is doing the frightening) would get to pick what the result was. If it was a mixed result, the defender (the noble space marine) could "reserve" an option (take it "off the table" for this exchange), and then the Space bug could choose one. If the defender won the roll, maybe he would have a "rally" effect that could come into play.

That's kinda messy... Let me try to explain it this way.

When you want to frighten your enemy roll 2D6 + your SCARY - Target's BRAVE. On a 10+ pick 2. On a 7-9 Target removes an option and you pick 1. On a 6- Target may use it's Rally Action.
*Target cannot move.
*Target cannot attack.
*Target suffer DEFENSE -X
*Target cannot offer support fire
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Chris Mazur
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That's actually really nice; That way I could list all the common morale effects in the core rules, and simply state "Your Unit's Morale Type will tell you which ones to use."

With this, you can also have the modifiers all start really small, such as "Target's movement is reduced by 1" " instead of "target cannot move", and as more and more SCARY effects stack onto a unit (as it fails to rally and such), that unit becomes less and less useful.

So to run with your example,

Your enemy is afraid of your attack! Enemies are afraid of attacks that hurt them (deal unsaved damage). Roll 2D6 + (SCARY modifier based on total damage done), and apply a number of effects to suppress your opponent.

And then have options such as,

Opponent's Morale:
Poor (You gain 1 SCARY if your roll is 7 or better, and another SCARY for each 2 your roll exceeds 7).

Average (You gain 1 SCARY if your roll is 8 or better, and another SCARY for each 3 your roll exceeds 8.

and so on; and then the Morale Types would list effects that you can spend SCARY on. Opponents then make Morale Checks of exactly the same type, with the modifiers switched - the better a unit's morale, the easier it removes scary effects.

I'll tool around with a few of these!
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Chris Mazur
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UNITS: In WARGAME, Warriors must fight together, or be eradicated – individuals are usually hunted down for sport, or manage to flee towards friendly lines. It's heartening having comrades with weapons on either side of you!

This is represented by Models being grouped together into Units – Models and Units are affected differently by different things, but often things that affect Models count as affecting Units – after all, if the guy beside you gets shot, you could be next!

In the long run, though, this relative safety allows your Models the freedom and breathing room to follow your commands better than they would alone – It also helps them find cover, enemies, or treasure better – two sets of eyes are better than one, after all!

Units represent the range of places your Models can be, and not their exact locations. To represent this, Models in a Unit are allowed to spread out, to within 2” of each other, in order to better protect them from explosions and traps, as well as to give them better firing positions or set up path-blocking ambushes.

MEASURING DISTANCES: In WARGAME, distances are measured in Inches (“). You may measure any distance at any time, with any method considered accurate and unobtrusive by every player involved.

This allows you to see if you're in range before you Shoot or Charge; after all, your Models are Soldiers and experienced generals who can easily gauge such things in the heat of battle.

When measuring distances between two Models, or between a Model and a location, always use the closest points of the Models'For Models supplied without a base (like some large vehicles) use the Model’s Hull or Body instead. When measuring distances between two Units, use the closest Models in each unit as your reference points.

So, for example, if any part of the Base of any Model in one of your Units is within 6" of the Base of a Model in an enemy's Unit, your Unit is said to be within 6" of that enemy Unit.

Sometimes a Game Effect will call upon a Unit or Model to move “Directly Towards” something, be it a Table Edge or another Unit. In this case, draw an imaginary line from the rough center of the Unit or Model, and move it along the line in the direction indicated until it's met the request of the Game Effect.

DICE (D6): In a Warhammer 40,000 battle you often need to roll dice to see how the actions of your Models turn out – how effective their shooting is, what damage they’ve done to a vehicle, and so on. Almost all of the dice rolls in Warhammer 40,000 use standard six-sided dice (usually referred to as ‘D6’), but there are some exceptions as noted below.

ROLLING A D3: In rare circumstances you may be told to roll a D3. Since there’s no such thing as a three-sided dice, use this method for determining a score between 1 and 3: Roll a D6 and halve the score, rounding up. Thus, a result of 1 or 2 is 1. 3 and 4 are 2 and 5 and 6 are 3.

SCATTER DICE: Some weapons are fairly random in their accuracy and require you to roll a scatter dice to determine where their shots land. The scatter dice is marked with arrows and special ‘HIT’ symbols, and is usually used to determine random directions for BLAST weapons or deepstriking.

DIVIDING RESULTS: Whenever you're called upon to divide a dice roll by some number, such as in half or by quarters, always round resulting fractions up. So, for instance, a roll of 3 halved is 1.5, rounding up is 2. 10% of 21 models is 2.1, rounded up is 3.

MODIFYING DICE ROLLS: Sometimes, you may have to modify the result of the dice roll. This is noted as D6 plus or minus a number, such as D6+1 or D6-2. Roll the dice and add or subtract the number to or from the score to get the final result.

For example, D6+2 means roll a dice and add 2 to the score, giving a total of between 3 and 8. Bases as your reference points.

You may also be told to roll a number of dice in one go, such as 2D6, 3D6, and so on. Roll the indicated number of dice and add the results together. So 2D6 would be rolled and added together, giving a result of 2-12.

Other methods may call for a number of D6 multiplied by another number – such as D6x5, which would result in a number between 5 and 30.

RE-ROLL: In some situations the rules allow you a ‘Re-Roll’ of the dice. This is exactly as it sounds – pick up the dice you wish to re-roll and roll them again. The second score counts, even if it means a worse result than the first, and no single die may be re-rolled more than once regardless of the source of the re-roll.

If you re-roll a 2D6 or 3D6 roll, you must re-roll all of the dice and not just some of them, unless the rule

ROLL-OFFS: If the rules require Players to roll-off, this simply means that each Player rolls 2D6 and the Player that scores the highest result wins the roll-off. If the Players roll the same result, both Players' dice must be rolled again until one Player is the winner – an exception to the regular rule for re-rolling dice.

RANDOMIZATION: Sometimes you'll be called upon to randomly select something – often a model, but sometimes an item or psychic power, etc. When this is the case, simply assign a D3 value to each of the things to be randomly selected, and roll a die to make your random choice. If you have more than 3 things to select from, simply use D6 values and a D6 instead.

If you have more than 6 items, simply divide the items as evenly as possible into groups of 3, randomize between the groups, and then randomize again on the selected group! You may scale this process up as necessary.

COCKED DICE: It's generally good form to allow Cocked Dice to be re-rolled (counting as having been re-rolled!). This includes dice that have landed in any manner that prevents them from being properly read by either player.

If you find that a lot of dice are being cocked due to your terrain or Battlefield setup, it may be best to begin rolling in a tray or shoe-box lid. Cocked Dice include any dice which have fallen on the floor, though some player prefer to simply count floor-bound dice as automatic failures!

Some weapons are so powerful, or affect such a wide area that they don't just target a single Model, but many Models, or sometimes entire Units! To better represent these weapons, WARGAME uses the following:

- A 3” “Small” Blast Marker
- A 5” “Large” Blast Marker
- An 8” Teardrop Template.

Copies of these Markers and Templates can be found both online, and at the end of this document. They are used whenever you need to determine how many Models have been affected by a Blast or Template weapon.

When an Attack or Ranged Attack uses a Blast Marker or Template Weapon, the description of that attack will state how to properly position the Blast Marker or Teardrop Template, as well as how to alter its position due to Scattering or other movement that might occur.

To determine how many models are affected, simply hold the Blast Marker or Teardrop Template in place as immobile as possible, and count the number of Models underneath it (including Models only partially underneath!) This number is used for whatever Game Effect the Blast Marker or Teardrop Template was used for, be it Mortar, Flamethrower, or Battle Blessing.

SCATTER: Sometimes a Game Effect will call for an object to Scatter – this object can be anything from a Blast Marker, to a Model, to an entire Unit! When this occurs, follow this procedure:

1) Follow the Effect's instructions for how to place the Object.

2) Roll the Scatter Die, and the number of D6 indicated by the Effect, to determine the direction and distance that your object must Scatter.

3) If a Hit! is rolled, normally the object is placed right where you've put it! Some Special Rules may interfere with this luck, however.

4) If an arrow is rolled, the object Scatters; it moves the indicated distance, ignoring intervening objects (unless otherwise stated).

5) Once the object has Scattered to its final position, resolve any additional Effects as a result of this Scatter.

VEHICLE PROFILES: WARGAME is home to all sorts of contraptions, ballistae, and other combat vehicles from every faction. To reflect the differences between creatures of flesh and blood and constructs, vehicles have many special rules that belong to them alone, which can be found in the Vehicles Section.

STATISTICS TESTS: During a battle, a Model might have to test one of its Statistics, normally its Strength, Durability, or Agility. For example, it might have to tests its Ag to avoid being crushed in a Vehicle Wreck.

Situations that require Statistics Tests will have a number associated with them called a Target Score - In order to take the test, roll a number of D6s specified by the test, and add the relevant Statistic. To succeed, your combined result must meet or beat the Target Score.

One thing to remember for Statistics Tests is that when a Model with a Statistic of 0 (or -) is called to make a Test on that Statistic, it always fails! Some Statstics Tests will have other Effects, which will be described by the Special Rules calling for them.

When an Effect calls for a Statistics Test to be made against an entire Unit, always use the highest value for that Statistic in the unit. It's assumed that the most suited for each task is there to lend a hand when needed!

MODELS WITH MULTIPLE PROFILES: When a Model has multiple values for a Statistic, it always takes Statistic Tests on the Highest value.

MODIFYING STATISTICS: Sometimes, Special Rules or Wargear will alter a Model's Statistics. One example is the Gauntlet of Power, which doubles its the Strength of a model who wields it – another is the Special Rule, Reckless Fury, which provides a set bonus to a Model's Strength, at the expense of its Combat Skill. Finally, there are Battle Powers, like Weaken, which set a Model's Strength directly to 1!

When applying modifiers to Statistics, or indeed, in general, follow the following rules:

1) Multiply first! Any Effects which Multiply a value are always applied immediately. Always round up unless a Rule specifies not to.

2) Add and Subtract! When multiple Effects grant positive and negative modifiers, they cancel each other out; only the remains of the largest modifier are left.

3) Finally, apply any Set Value modifiers, such as Weaken. Sometimes, there will be more than one Set Value wishing to apply to a Unit.

This is where Timing comes in – Once you've determined which Effects apply to each of the 3 steps above, The modifier applied Most Recently has priority in that step – it will be applied after all the others, and this will be the Effect we see used.

If two Effects are applied at the same time, the Active Player decides which Effect ultimately prevails. If, for some reason, this still doesn't resolve an issue, the modifier which is most beneficial to the affected Unit is applied.

If there's STILL any doubt as to which modifier is being used, simply Randomize between them.

Tests on Morale: Tests made on or against the Morale of a Model or Unit have many different names, as there are different ways to test a creature's resolve. These tests are explained in greater detail in the Morale section.

GENERAL VS. SPECIFIC: WARGAME is a game of allowance. The Rules enable your Models and Units to do things during the course of the game, such as Move and Shoot and Capture Objectives.

As such, there will occasionally be overlaps in the Rules, where it seems that a Model can or can't do something that might seem odd, or counter-intuitive.

When this is the case, remember that Specific Trumps General – If a Rule states that “Boys get Cake,” then all of your Boys will get Cake!

However, if the Rule states that “Good Boys get Cake”, then only the Boys you have that are Good get Cake – the rest are not entitled to any Cake because they do not meet the requirements for it.

Another, more counter-intuitive example of this is Shooting: Some Weapons may be able to Shoot Units their firers they can't see directly - Since the General rule is, “Units can't Damage Units they can't see,” even though there's a rule allowing these Weapons to Shoot them, they still won't Damage them without another supporting rule saying that they can.

To be fair, most of these Weapons will have such rules, but others might require Spotters and the like.

MAJOURITY STATISTICS: In some cases the majority of a certain Statistic in a Unit is used. If every Model in the Unit has the same value, the majority value is easy to determine – it's that value!

However, if the Unit consists of Models with different Statistics, an alternative must be used

- If at least half of the Unit’s Models have an equal or better value than the worst value in the Unit, this value can be used as the majority value of the Unit. If there are several such values, the Player controlling that Unit can choose any of them.

For Example: An Elven Unit consists of three Treants, with Du 15 and one Tree Singer, with Du 4. All Models have Du 4 or better, and 3 out of 4 have Du 15 or better. Both Du values would be eligible to be the Majority value of the Unit. The controlling Player chooses Durability 15, as it makes the Unit much more resilient.

UNIT TYPES: The abilities of a Model are not only described by its profile but also by its Unit Type. Most notably the Unit Type of a Model tells you in which ways the Model is able to move. In addition, it assigns a number of special rules to the Model. The Unit Types are described in detail later.

LINE OF SIGHT: Line of Sight is primarily determined by your Model; Non-Vehicle Models are assumed to be agile enough to get a good view around them at all times, and as such can see in any direction, any time.

The easiest way to determine roughly what they can see is to close in on the Battlefield for a Model's-Eye view; using a camera phone or even simply poking your head close to the angle of the Model to get an idea of what's blocking your Model's sight.

This Line of Sight is used to determine what Units can claim Cover from Battlefield debris and obscuring ruins, as well as other intervening Models and Units. Note, however, that a Model's own Unit never counts as obstructing its Line of Sight in any way – treat them as if they were invisible for this purpose!

A Model is Obscured if at least 25% of its Body or Hull can't be seen due to anything in the way. A Unit is Obscured if at least 25% of the Models in that Unit are Obscured.

GAME TURNS AND ACTIONS: Everything a Model does on the Battlefield is part of an Action. Actions are split up between the four Phases – Beginning, Tactical, Combat, and Resolution. This cycle is called a Game Turn, and as you might have guessed, starts at the Beginning. Phases will be described in this section, along with the main Actions that can be performed in them.

At the start of the each Game Turn is the Beginning Phase, and at the start of the Beginning Phase, you determine the Active Player, who proceeds to interact with the game in a process called Activation.

Activation passes Clockwise from the Active Player – In games with many players, canny Players will often place themselves later in the queue of Active Players, in order to gain tactical information at the cost of their Units' well-being.

During Activation, the Active Player chooses one of their Units that hasn't been Activated yet in the current Phase, and performs any available Actions with it. Each Phase has a number of available Actions to choose from, and any Actions not listed here will have a Phase associated with them for clarity. Once a Unit has no more available actions, the next Player becomes Active Player.

In the Beginning Phase, there are very few Actions available to most Units; Units in Reserve can attempt to come in from Reserve, and Units on the field can Wait, or End their Activation. A list of Actions that Units can perform each Phase will follow this summary of each of the Phases.

In the Tactical Phase, the Active Player may Move, Run, Shoot, and perform actions that are variations of these, such as Ramming or Diving for Cover.

In the Combat Phase, the Active Player can declare an Assault, or fall back, or even resolve special attacks or abilities – like Overwatch or Bracing.

The Resolution Phase is special – it happens after each Activation, right in the middle of the other Phases. It lets Players keep their Units up to date as the Turn goes by. After each Activation, a Resolution Phase allows players to assess any Effects applied to their Units, such as from casualties or Special Rules. No Actions are taken in the Resolution Phases – each Player simply applies any effects that happen “Upon Resolution” in Activation order, and then the next Activation begins!

Exceptions: Sometimes a Player may wish for a slower Unit to Activate before their Units with higher Initiative; in this case, the slower Unit makes an Initiative Test with a Target Score equal to the Initiative of their fastest Unit.

Alternatively, any Unit may perform a Wait action. Units that Wait are Activated dead last – as if their Initiative was 0.

Phase Timing: There are a many things which can happen over the course of each Phase, and certain Actions, Rules, or Effects will refer to things happening at specific times – such as the Beginning, the Start, the End, etc. For our purposes, the Beginning and Start of a Phase are considered to be the same thing.

If various Effects, Rules, or Actions would happen in the same timing, the Active Player resolves them in this order:

1) Static Unit Abilities or Effects which are not Psychic*

2) Blessings and Maledictions

3) Other Psychic Powers

4) Units entering the Battlefield from Reserves

5) All other Actions

If there are multiple Actions, Rules, or Effects which fall under the same category, the Active Player dictates which one happens first.

*A Static Ability is something that happens autoamtically, all the time – things like Characteristics Profiles and Special Rules that provide bonuses all the time are Static Abilities and Effects.

ACTIONS: Actions describe most of the activity your Units will be performing – whether they're Shooting or Falling Back. Actions are presented in the following format:

Phase: Which Phases this Action is available in. Members: Determines whether individual Models, or entire Units perform this Action.
Restrictions: All Members wishing to perform this action must not be affected by these restrictions.
Details: The rest of the Action's Details are described.

THE BEGINNING PHASE: The first thing Players do each Beginning Phase is Roll-Off. The victor of this Roll-Off chooses who will be the first Active Player during this Game Turn. The Beginning Phase provides the following Actions: End, Regroup, Reserves, Wait. Certain Special Rules and Unit Types will grant other Actions during the Beginning Phase.

Phase: Any Members: Entire Unit
Restrictions: None

Details: The Unit finishes its current Activation, and may perform no more Voluntary Actions this Phase

Phase: Beginning Members: Entire Unit
Restrictions: If Unit Morale is Broken, at least 25% of the Unit's original size must still be alive.

Details: The Unit immediately takes a Morale Check to remove Suppression.

Phase: Beginning Members: Entire Unit
Restrictions: Must be a Unit in Reserves

Details: The Unit enters the Battlefield according to its Reserves Type. It counts as having already Moved in the proceeding Phases.

Phase: Any Members: Entire Unit
Restrictions: The Unit must not be Falling Back, Pinned, or have taken any other Actions yet this Phase

Details: The Unit takes the rest of its Actions at Initiative 0 this Phase

Explaining the Terms: Some of the terms above are new. Morale Checks, Reserves, Suppression Modifiers, Voluntary Actions – these have yet to be explained. After each Phase's description and Actions, we'll explain any new terms, or tell you where to find them.

Some of these terms have many of their own Rules and Effects, or are more appropriately explained elsewhere. If this is the case, a short summary of the term will be provided here, along with a Hyperlink to where you can learn more.

(So far, this is all I have; I've got the basic of which actions I'd like to have in each phase, as well as a few units ported over for playtesting.)

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Chris Mazur
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What are your favourite parts of playing a wargame?

Mine are the endless matchups between players - every time you analyze your army, you might find something new to do with it. Every time you read and re-read your favourite faction's entries, you might become inspired. Rolling lots of dice is also important to me, whether I'm shooting or getting shot, it's always nice to be a part of what's happening.

What sort of issues do you have with current wargames that I can avoid?

My personal issues are that simplistic games often don't have enough mechanical depth to keep me interested once I've found an army I like, while rules-intensive games (like warhammer) often have a lot of holes and abusive or simply busted mechanics that don't work well together (timing is an especially pertinent issue in 6th edition).

What sort of Morale or Combat systems would you like to see included (Special attacks, fear modifiers, different effects, and such)?

I intend to include a Morale system that triggers on casualties, and begins stacking "suppression counters" on units as they take more and more damage and casualties - with increasing effects, until eventually the unit's morale breaks, and they perform differnetly (Humans run, Space Bugs burrow, Robots shut down, Savages go berzerk - there are a few themes I have to work with based on Tropes). Each turn, units attempt to remove suppression counters, and if they can't manage to remove a single one, this also causes them to break (this usually won't happen - even the most cowardly units will find some resolve when there's a lull in the action where they can shoot someone - it's most often seen after a few suppression counters have already demoralized a unit that it fails to Rally).

For combat, I'm using a 20-Tic system, with Armor and Penetration directly opposed. This is a fancy way of saying "Each point in Armor blocks 5% of the damage, and each point in Penetration removes a point of Armour" - Unblocked damage goes into Durability, which soaks up damage at a 1:1 ratio. When Durability reaches 0, a Health Point is removed, and Durability is reset - Humans have 5 Durability and 1 Health Point, meaning that if something does 5 unblocked damage to a human, it loses that health point! Obviously, individuals without a health point become casualties.

The intent is to give each character a threshold where taking that much damage simply won't do much to hinder them. A Human with a kevlar vest can take a few bullets over the course of a battle with minor immediate repercussions, but if a grenade explodes nearby, he's out of luck. Hit Points are intended to give Heroic Characters or Big Monsters more of a dramatic feel - a stab that might kill a human won't inconvenience an elephant much in the heat of battle, after all! And no matter how many firearms and swords you take to a tank, you aren't going to be slowing it down any time soon!

Effects can be applied per-damage, per-hit, per-damage-saved, or any other number of interesting factors - such as armour decay, or lifesteal.

What sort of movement modes should I include, outside of normal, hovering, flying, teleporting, (the usual), etc.?

The above pretty much covers it for me; I never liked 40K's "Jump" infantry, as I feel they shouldn't have to land unless they're specifically hitting the ground for some reason (such as lower target profile, or aiding a melee).

Would you play a game with paper cutouts or legos, or other unstandardized representations?

Papercraft looks like the most interesting route for this! It's practically free, really fun to set up (especialyl with children), and still lets you retain army 'growth'. I'd also like the ability to adapt it for play by post, or play by email, with an octagonal inch-grid system.

What are some of the most important features you'd like to see included?

I've always really liked the option of creating and balancing your own personal units or army creations - M:tG has a really intuitive and easy to learn Mana Costing formula for most options, because it can be easily determined how 'quickly' new cards can help you win the game. As a game of tactics, strategy, and general attrition, I don't feel like this would be easy, or even viable, but that's just one of the things I've always wanted.

Other things I'd like to see would be Unit Cards, like Warmahordes, that let you easily identify unit properties at a glance. Ideally, these would be laminated card that you could write wargear options, unit sizes, and points costs or reminders on - but a editable pdf or phone app might work well for situations with a printer at hand.

As always, thanks for any input on this; I'm new to how I should be going about posting information about my game, so if I should just post what I have in its entirety here, that's easy to do as well. It's in double-row format (like warhammer rulebooks are) for .pdf viewing if I should post that, as well.
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Finishing up Close Combat Actions, one that stood out as a great example for the amount of terms it holds, and the amount of interactivity I'd like to display -

Phase: Combat Members: Each Model
Restrictions: A Unit may declare Overwatch only when another Unit Declares a Charge against it

Details: After all Charges are Declared, but before Waiting Units are Activated, the Unit may Shoot at any single Unit that is Charging it

The Evasion of the Unit being Shot is increased by that Unit's Combat Skill against this Shooting, and the Firing Unit uses its Weapon's Close-Range Modifiers for this Shooting, regardless of the Range to the Target Unit

A Unit that performs Overwatch against a Charging Unit only gains Defensive Bonuses, like from Bracing or Wargear, against the Target of its Overwatch

We can immediately see that the Action is called Overwatch. We know it's used in the Close Combat Phase, and can see that Each Model in the Unit has the choice of performing it or not. It tells us that the Unit as a whole can only Overwatch when another Unit Declares a Charge against it (Capitalization implies it's an Action, or Game Term - these are bolded in the document as well for emphasis).

The Details of the Action tell us that it makes the Unit we choose to use it against harder to Shoot - it tells us how it does this, and it also tells us that we use a Specific Case of Rules for a Weapon, overriding the General Rules (a great example of Specific Trumps General, a game rule that deals with Rule Priority).

It then tells us that using Overwatch leaves the Unit vulnerable to other Attackers - again by removing defenses with Specific Trumps General (Because a unit that uses overwatch getting charged is more specific than a unit getting charged!).

To recap, the action provides details on how and when it's used, on who uses it, an when it cant be used, and what precisely it does in game terms.

Each Action uses pre-defined Terms, or bases its own terms on pre-defined actions, building off of what's already been presented to players. Each of the Actions has its own terms described in the space following the Phase Description, and all of those Terms pull their rules from a specific ruleset (such as the section describing movement, or describing shooting, which they'll hyperlink to in the pdf) - letting players quickly reference and reinforce game knowledge.
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I had a great couple of replies from another site, figure I'd share what came out of it here to pick over;

As someone who is also homebrewing a wargame, I'll wish you luck (though I note that we're trying to build completely different games, presumably for completely different reasons - I for instance would never consider touching GW rules unless extenuating circumstances were involved).

Heh, I don't blame you - they've made a lot of mistakes. Their core movement rules, though, aren't half bad (Pick up a model, move it up to its movement stat, etc. - there's really not many different things you can do with movement, though I'll be incorporating Movement Types into the Movement Rules, rather than the Unit Types rules - it just seems easier that way) - I'll be brewing my own rules for flying, difficult terrain grades, terrain wear on vehicles (one thing that's often neglected in games!), etc.

I suggest playing a lot of skirmish type wargames - Force on Force, Warmachine, Saga and Sharp Practice being the ones that spring prominently into my mind. If you want to build a skirmish game and you haven't played anything that wasn't done by the bloated beast of overbearingness then I worry about clarity of vision.

I'm actually pulling a lot from Infinity, Warhammer FB, Malifaux, FoW, etc.; the theme of the game is going to be 40K because that's the biggest pull around my area - I'm also interested in capturing the cinematic feel, as it's something I think 40K has slowly lost since its 2nd edition.

The first and most important thing when writing any set of rules is to decide EXCATLY what it is you want to model, before even thinking about rules mechanics. Far too many (bad) wargames start by deciding "I want to use this set of mechanics" instead of saying "I want this result to happen in these circumstances, so what mechanics do I need to use to achieve those results?" Because if you do it the wrong way around, you end up with rules that will almost certainly give you results you didn't want or anticipate; and that people will play to the rules you've written, and not to the game as you envisioned it, if you follow me.

Whoo okay. This one's a jiffy. I absolutely agree, and this is something I'm glad you pointed out, as I can already see that I have rules designed this way, for exactly this reason, and rules designed the wrong way out of negligence. You're a cruel man, making me examine my motives.

Spoiled for xbox hueg post.

I'd like to model multiple forces, often of completely separate and opposed factions, with between 3 and 15 units of models on each side. I want the victor to be decided by both a Time Limit with Objectives and Kill Count, and also by the option of Last Man Standing.

I want a game that has playing pieces that can interact with the game - and other models - in a variety of ways, not just moving and shooting. I want a game where having allies around you plays a part in morale, where not every unit has their morale broken in the same way, and where regrouping and rallying don't necessarily make all the bad feelings and scary war sounds magically disappear.

I want a game that involves each player on a regular basis, that feels fast-paced. I want each players' actions to have tactical value - that is, I don't want many scenarios in which a player can do something, and have nothing happen as a result of it. (Due to the cinematic 'setting' I'm basing the armies off of, certain times this will happen - such as when small-arms fire at tanks, or groups of powerful knights (thunderwolf cavalry, nob bikerz, etc.,) wade into lowly peasants (grotz, conscripts...)).

Even then, I'd like for most 'weak' units to have something - be it grenades, or simply weight of numbers - that can help them even the odds ever so slightly, when used just right. Sacrificing a score of guardsmen to get one in position with a vital grenade to the fusion reactor located on the back of a Land Raider, for instance, is something I'd like to see, not exactly regularly, but as a result of one player's good maneuvering, or another player's blunder.

I'd like close combat to be aided by the use of formations on either side, and not what the warhammers and Warmahordes have it as "a free extra attack when I'm close and they're close!" I intend for it to have very dramatic results, such as 40k's sweeping advance, to represent how jarring and brutal it is for those involved. I also intend for Overwatch to be much more powerful against it, and for actions like Bracing to allow units to hold their formations against charges for a round, instead of rushing into a chaotic melee immediately.

I want scenarios with more involvement than a couple objectives and a main goal. For games like Warmahordes, in which killing the caster is a great resolution mechanic, this works out just fine. For games like 40K, in which balance isn't even a consideration, this also works out just fine.

I want reserves and alternate maneuver options that give players a bit more control over when and where things come in; my initial thoughts have been that the table edges provided by 40k's reserves are definitely not a bad start, but their implementation (lolrandumb table edge, can't charge out of reserves, etc.,) as well as their timing for it, could use improvement and modification. I would like teleportation and air-drops to be present, but for once I'm actually struggling with the way to deal with the inherent inaccuracy of these delivery methods other than some form of scatter - though it would be a consistent scatter, none of this 2D6 crap.

I can't think of anything else right now, probably because I'm overlooking it. Distinct factions, lots of unit interaction, rules and scenarios inherently allow for balanced army creation to be simple, attacking deals a lot of damage, multiplayer (3-6 players meta considerations could be one I'm missing), the way you place your troops is important, and good troop formations are easy to identify and perform...

Fog of war is being simulated by a couple of things - gun range modifiers (close range, target range, long range) with penalties for shooting outside of the target range. Evasion begins getting buffs after 18", and significant buffs after 30"; 36" is the sight limit for most human units simply because their Ranged Skill won't be able to hit anything beyond this - necessitating the use of scouts and snipers/spotters.

For weapons, I'd like to go with effects that are easy to identify by name. Strikedown is a particularly good example from 40K; if you get hit by a weapon with strikedown, your agility is set to 0 and you move at a slower speed.

If I think of anything else, I'll add it here, I guess - this is a good post for me to reference.

What level of realism are you going for? Are you planning to make a system that is principally designed to facilitate you push models around for a bit of a giggle and roll some dice, or do you want to make a set of rules that encourages serious tactical thinking (i.e., more along the lines of almost puzzle solving, "how do I attack that position") and maneouver over weapon factors? (The implication is for the former, given that you're basing it around 40K. There's nothing wrong with that, but it is a very different kettle of fish it terms of requirements. The type of wargame people play is as or arguably more diverse than the style of RPG games people play, so the question has to be asked.)

I'd like the[URL=""] QJM [/URL]to play a large part in how terrain factors into to battlefield, providing a definite boost beyond buffs to evasion. Direct damage reduction, morale buffing, ranged skill improvements... I'd like to see, yes, something that in situations will force players to stop and really think about what resources they're going to have to allocate against a defensive position, or if they even think it's worth taking it on at all.

The biggest role maneuvering is going to be playing is getting to desirable positions for objective capturing and weapons fire; infantry and other 'creature' models will have 180* facings and the only way they're going to be able to move is with a movement action; vehicles are going to have their four facings similar to 40K, and draw line of sight from their cockpit, crew, or other sensors, like real life, because 40K assumes that everyone's guns can see.

Overall, I'm aiming for a fast-paced game where tactical considerations can give you a defined and powerful advantage, where formations can be the difference between being murdered in close combat, or forcing your enemy to withdraw, and where terrain, range, and vehicle wear is a factor in the overall strength of your shooting and bombardments.

But it's also going to be a 40K setting for my IRL players, so expect to see a lot of that go to the wind when the space marine players face off to see who's more Rambo. Still, when simulating a setting like a modern or world war, it should perform well, if a tad dramatically.

What's the nominal ground and time scale? (That should have been the very first thing you decided.)

The boards are going to be (usually) 4x4 for 2 players, with 6x4 for 4 players and 8x6 for 6 players. You can cram more onto smaller boards, or play more spread out on larger boards, of course.

Human ground-pounders have a Movement of 5"; since, like most wargames, unit movement and weapons ranges have to be represented in vastly different scales (because we unfortunately can't play the game in a parking lot, and most people enjoy shooting more than .001 inches).

Have you considered how to deal with the single most important - and least paid-attention-to aspect of ground combat, e.g. terrain? E.g. things like dead ground, what happens when a vehicle drives into difficult going, how to cross obstacles?

I'm using an accelerated version of the QJM for calculating vehicle wear; bigger vehicles will wear faster but have more to wear off. Small vehicles and things like motorbikes and jetbikes will hardly wear. For most other unit types, wear is assumed to be included in their combat profiles, and their reduced speeds through various terrains is assuming they're addressing wear as it happens.

What is unit visibilty like? Can they see and react to anything within 360º, or only to things in a more realistic visibility arc? And spotting and visibility of units in general?

Answered this in a previous address, whups; 180* for most models, spotting models will probably provide a turn-face Action as a response to something happening, but they'll also be vulnerable somehow (such as being on the outside of the unit, where normally the heavy Armour goes.) Spotting is reduced over distance until, at ~36", all but the best humans have no chance of hitting anything. For units like Space Marines, with their bionics and enhanced genetics, this will probably be around 36-42", as some have really great eyesight. 48" is going to be just about the universal vision distance (I'm looking at special characters with obscene values here). Hence, the importance of spotters and artillery.

What is command and control like? (This is not the same thing as round sequence or unit activation.) Ditto morale/ammunition supply/combat effectiveness?

Things like combat orders and special abilities will be available from your Leader units - Increased firepower or movement, morale boosts, etc.; in general, Units are each led by a sergeant or veteran, and so can function fairly well on their own; their profiles and actions are going to be built around the assumption that "they have been given orders, and perform this well on those orders" - with the addendum that at suitably dramatic moments, their HQ breaks through the electronic warfare with help or new orders.

EW itself will not be making it into the game, as there's a surprising amount of ignorance surrounding the issue.

Morale is going to be done through increasing suppression being compared against units' morale grades and types. Not everyone breaks in the same way - some run to friendly lines, others burrow, or go berzerk, or simply shut down. And I mean this literally - there's robots and space bugs and big green berzerkers! I hope to represent about 5 different types of Morale (researched from tropes), with between 5 to 7 different Grades of morale.

I haven't addressed ammo yet; It'll probably be a basic rule, with most of the 40K' themed units ignoring it for cinematic purposes. Other themes may have units with very limited supplies (heroes of might and magic units can only shoot between 4 and 24 times!). Of course, certain units will be providing ammo-dump functions in this case.

Unit effectiveness is directly tied to morale through suppression effects. Morale will obviously be affected by terrain, but mostly by incoming damage and casualties.

What about hull down positions for armoured vehicles, or fighting positions for infantry (or, for that matter, urban fighting with multiple, different levels of buildings?)

Vehicles and Infantry are going to benefit greatly from Terrain, which will provide Actions (such as defensive positions) based on the terrain type; As well, obscured units and vehicles receive bonuses to their Evasion.

I also want to include terrain decay, as the first thing that came to mind was two tanks, circling a hill, completely ineffective against each other :I

I would also like to know what size of games are you imagining? Are you thinking each player has 1 to 10 models, or are we talking about 80 ish? (80 is a bit big for 40k, but I'm a fantasy player so cut me some slack)

probably about 10-50 models per player on average, with some factions (like orks :I) having a lot more.

As already stated, one of the biggest problems with wargames is terrain. in warhammer fantasy it went from "everything might as well be impassable" to "is there a reason for forests to be there, they don't do anything anyway"


The second issue with most wargames (especially the warhammers) are the special rules and cost balancing. I don't think your to the point of adding in specials yet, but make sure to play test them a bunch to find out.

Yeah, I'm hoping to use a WARGAME-itized variation of the QJM to validate points costs. If that doesn't work out, I'll probably just wing it with a bunch of playtests. My personal 'balancing' method involved "How broken and can I make this if I put my mind to it?" and then toning it down until it's at an acceptable level and "points cost."

As was pointed out, scenario will have a lot of balancing factor as well, requiring players to take a certain number of units and arrange them a certain way. Not every game will have a scenario, and some will let the players build one themselves with bidding.

Reading over Aetherverse, I see he and I went the same way in a lot of directions. In another post, I'll sort of go over why I feel differently about things with him on certain parts, and give my impressions on what I can learn from it
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Updated: The document so far can be found here:

It's unformatted, and zoomed in 200%, so might want to save your eyes some hurt by zooming out.
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I think I've got the basics of the Suppression System down:

Whenever a Soldier in a Squadron loses at least 1 Health Point from a single Source, that Squadron immediately gains a Suppression Counter, and must test against Suppression during the Resolution Step.

To test against Suppression, both the Player whose Squadron is testing against Suppression, and the Player whose Damage caused Suppression, Roll-Off on 3D6 (instead of 2D6).

The Player whose Squadron is testing against Suppression (The Defending Player) modifies his Roll based on the Squadron's Morale:
+4 for Cowardly +14 for Good
+7 for Poor +18 for Excellent
+11 for Average +21 for Fearless.

The Player whose Damage caused Suppression (The Attacking Player) modifies his Roll based on the Damage which caused the Suppression test:
+1 for every 100 Total Damage against the Squadron testing against Suppression since the last Resolution Step
+1 for every Health Point lost by the Squadron testing against Suppression since the last Resolution Step
+2 is Squad Leader was a Casualty from any Damage since the last Resolution Step
+3 if Squadron was reduced to Half Strength or lower since the last Resolution Step
+4 if Squadron was reduced to Quarter Strength or lower (This is on top of the +3 for Half Strength) since the last Resolution Step.

If the Attacking Player Ties Defending Player, the Damaged Squadron receives 1 Suppression Counter. If the Attacking Player wins by at least 1, the Damaged Squadron receives an additional Suppression Counter.

If the Attacking Player wins by at least 5, the Damaged Squadron instead receives 2 additional Suppression Counters. For every step of 5 the Attacking Player wins by (10, 15, 20, etc.), the Damaged Squadron instead receives an additional 2 Suppression Counters (4 for 10, 6 for 15, 8 for 20, etc.).

If the Defending Player wins, no Suppression Counters are added.

What it basically amounts to is that if someone does enough damage to you to kill half your buddies (about 10-11 people) you're probably not going to stick around and shoot them back - or you'll be shaking so badly that your aim will suffer because of it.

Each Beginning Phase, Squadrons with Suppression Counters may Activate to Rally. To Rally his Squadron, the Active Player Rolls 3D6, and modifies his Roll based on the Squadron's Morale:
+4 for Cowardly +14 for Good
+7 for Poor +18 for Excellent
+11 for Average +21 for Fearless

And then subtracts 1 for each Suppression Counter on the Squadron

On a roll of 12+, the Squadron may remove 1 Suppression Counter. For every step of 3 beyond 15 (18, 21, 24, etc.), the Squadron may remove 1 additional Suppression Counter (2 at 18, 3 at 21, 4 at 24, etc).

If a Squadron fails to remove ANY suppression Counters, its Morale Breaks - Broken Morale, and the effects of Suppression Counters, are different for each Morale Modifier.

Normal Morale Modifier

At 1 Suppression Counter, and every step of 2 after (3, 5, 7, etc.), apply the following penalties:
-1 to Movement, -1 to Suppression Tests

At 2 Suppression Counters, and every step of 2 after (4, 6, 8, etc.), apply the following penalties:
-1 to Combat Skill, Ranged Skill, Reaction.

When a Normal Morale Squadron's Morale Breaks, it begins Falling Back toward the nearest Friendly Squadron without any Suppression Counters. If none are available, it begins Falling Back toward the nearest Table Edge.

Falling Back is unaffected by any Movement Penalties from Suppression Counters, and is a Hustle Action done in the Movement Phase. Falling Back is done using the shortest route possible. Squadrons that are Falling Back can perform no Voluntary Actions, and never gain Evasion Benefits from Terrain (though their movement is still slowed by it).

If a Squadron that is Falling Back reaches a Friendly Squadron without Suppression Counters, it may attempt to Rally immediately, ignoring Rally penalties from Suppression Counters. It may act normally for the rest of the Turn if it manages to remove at least 1 Suppression Counter.

If a Squadron that is Falling Back reaches a Table Edge, it is placed into Reserves. Leave a token or suitable marker where it left the Battlefield - it re-enters the Battlefield from that spot. For each Turn it remains in Reserves, remove a Suppression Counter from it, and attempt to Rally. When it Rallies, it may attempt to enter the Battlefield from Reserves as normal, except that it must Hustle onto the Battlefield.

If a Squadron that is Falling Back is the target of a Charge, it cannot attempt Overwatch. Instead, once the Charge has finished, it immediately attempts to Rally: If this Rally fails, the Squadron is removed as casualties, and the Charging Squadron counts its destruction toward its Close Combat Results. If the Rally is successful, it participates in the Close Combat normally.
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300. Movement

For each Soldier / Vehicle in a Moving Squadron, determine if it will Move or Remain Stationary.

Soldiers / Vehicles choosing to Remain Stationary do not move with the rest of the Soldiers / Vehicles in the Squadron, and do not count as having moved.

Of the Soldiers that have decided to move, choose a Soldier / Vehicle to be moved. This Soldier / Vehicle is the Moving Soldier / Vehicle

Choose how the Moving Soldier will move, if it has more than one means of movement.

Draw an imaginary line on the Battlefield, the width of the Ground Profile of the Moving Soldier / Vehicle, starting at a point on the Ground Profile of the Moving Soldier / Vehicle.

The imaginary line on the Battlefield is called the Movement Path, and the chosen point on the Ground Profile is called the Starting Point.

The Movement Path must be at least 0" long, but may be as long, from the Starting Point, as the Value of the Movement Stat of the Moving Soldier / Vehicle in Inches. The Starting Point is the size of the period at the end of this sentence.

Measuring from the Starting Point, you may pick up the Moving Soldier / Vehicle, and place it so that it's centered along the Movement Path, and so its Starting Point is within the Movement Path.

This placement is called the Final Position.

The Movement Path, and the Final Position of the Moving Soldier / Vehicle, must not overlap any Impassable Objects.

Choose another Soldier / Vehicle that has decided to move to become the Moving Soldier. Repeat steps 300.3a to step 300.5 with it.

The Final Position for each Soldier / Vehicle is not permanent until each other Soldier / Vehicle in the Squadron that has decided to move is finished its Movement, and until the Squadron Ends its Activation.

Until the Squadron Ends its Activation, any Soldier / Vehicle that was a Moving Soldier / Vehicle may be placed back at its Starting Point, and moved in a different direction.


For each Soldier / Vehicle in a Moving Squadron, determine if it will Move or Remain Stationary. If a Soldier / Vehicle intends to Move, now is when you determine what form of Movement it will use, if it has more than one.

Soldiers / Vehicles choosing to Remain Stationary do not do the following, while those that choose to Move do so with the following steps:

- Draw an imaginary line on the Battlefield, the width of the Ground Profile of the moving Soldier / Vehicle, starting at a point on the Ground Profile of the moving Soldier / Vehicle. The line on the Battlefield is called the Movement Path, and the point on the Ground Profile is called the Starting Point.

- The Movement Path must be at least 0" long, but may be as long, from the Starting Point, as the Value of the Movement Stat of the moving Soldier / Vehicle in Inches.

- The Movement Path, and the Final Position of the moving Soldier / Vehicle, must not overlap any Impassable Objects.

- Measuring from the Starting Point, you may pick up the moving Soldier / Vehicle, and place it so that it's centered along the Movement Path, and so its Starting Point is within the Movement Path.

- This placement is called the Final Position. The Final Position is not permanent until the Squadron is finished its Movement, and Ends its Activation - until then, the moving Soldier / Vehicle may be placed back at its Starting Point, and moved in a different direction.
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You can really see the MTG showing through on this one...


100. General
These rules apply to any WARGAME with two or more players, including two-player games and multiplayer games.

A two-player game is a game that begins with only two players.

A multiplayer game is a game that begins with more than two players. See section 8. Multiplayer Rules.

To play, each player needs their own Army List, small items to represent any tokens and counters, and representations for their Soldiers and Vehicles. Players will also need a number of 6 and 10-sided Dice (at least 1 of each).

In free-play, each Army List must be as close to an agreed-upon Threat Level as possible. The Game Type is chosen randomly or by concensus.

In Scenario, the Army List and Game Type pre-determined based on the Scenario chosen. See Section XX, Scenarios.

If playing a multiplayer game, teams are decided before continuing. Players choose their own teams, but must respect that each team must have an equal Threat Value.

In a multiplayer Scenario game, teams are dictated by the Scenario rules instead.
Some WARGAMES may need additional material (such as Army Books and other WARGAME modules). See Section XX, Supplements.
After the Players have agreed to play a game, each Army List is presented. Players may examine each other's Army Lists, and choose to opt-out from this match now, withdrawing all forces from the Battlefield.

Free-play games may continue normally from here if the remaining Players consent.

Scenarios that no longer meet the required number of Players or that no longer have the appropriate Armies cannot continue; another Player (with the appropriate Army) must be found, or the game does not proceed.

Tournaments may have their own Scenarios or Game Rules.


The rule with the highest priority takes precedence.

Specific trumps general. The more specific a rule is, the higher priority it has.

Example: Two Rules, "Player 1 gets candy except when he is bad" and "Player 1 gets candy if he is 6' tall, even if he is bad" - the second Rule is more specific, as it has more requirements and specifications, and applies to less things (only Player 1's who are exactly 6' tall). Even if Player 1 was bad, if he is exactly 6' tall he will get candy.

Whenever a Module's Rule directly contradicts a Game Rule, the Module's Rule take precedence. Whenever a Special Rule directly contradicts either a Game Rule or a Module's Rule, the Special Rule takes precedence.

When a rule or effect allows or directs something to happen, and another rule or effect states that it can't happen, the "can't" rule or effect takes precedence.

Example: Player 1's Soldiers may Charge. Player 2's Soldiers have a Special Rule saying Player 1's Soldiers cannot Charge this turn. The effect that precludes Player 1's Soldiers from Charging has the higher priority.

Tying it in: If Player 1's Soldiers may Charge, "regardless of other restrictions," this is a more specific rule or effect, and thus now has the higher priority.

Adding or Removing Special Rules from Players, Armies, Soldiers, and Vehicles doesn't fall under rule 101.2 - Adding and Removing Rules is not the same as "Can" or "Can't".

After the Rules or Effects that add or remove Rules has resolved, check to see if any "Can" or "Can't" allowances or restrictions still apply.

Example: If Player 1 adds a Special Rule stating he is no longer 6' tall, he will no longer receive candy if he is bad. If he removes the Special Rule making him bad, he will receive candy!

Any part of an instruction from any source that's impossible to perform is ignored (in many cases, the source of the instruction will specify consequences for this; if it doesn't, there is no effect).

If more than 1 Player would make choices and/or take Actions at the same time, the Active Player (the Player whose turn it is) makes any choices required, then the next Player in Activation Order (usually the Player seated to the Active Player's left) makes any choices required, followed by the remaining Inactive Players in turn order. Then the Actions happen simultaneously. This rule is often referred to as the "Active Player, Inactive Player (APIP) order" rule.

Player 1's Cannon Blast hits a Soldier from each Player, including himself. First, he will resolve his own Damage. Then each of the Inactive Players, in turn order, will resolve their Damage. Then all Soldiers that died will be removed from the Battlefield simultaneously.
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Chris Mazur
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Just a bump to save this from obscurity; I've sort of backburnered this for school, but would still like to stew any design advice for over-break workings.
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