the temple of Athena says that it gives all other players a down bump when your education is six or higher. Does this mean they get the down bump on the turn you get six, or only on future turns?
Rulebook (page 14 of the .pdf here on BGG):
If worshipping Athena raises your culture to 6 or more, the negative effect does apply to your opponents. But if worshipping Athena only raises your culture to 5, and you use the benefit of the Temple to raise it to 6, the negative effect does not occur.
there is a building that makes all future buildings cost one less generic resource. Does this mean not playing one resource of my choice, or does it only work on building that specifically cost a generic resource?
Rulebook (page 13 of the .pdf here on BGG):
When you have a Marble Quarry, your cost for all Buildings (common and unique) is reduced by one resource of your choice.
If these clarifications are not enough, please ask again!