1) IRAN card played by Jihadists. Picking random Shia-mix country. Two good allies and untested Turkey adjacent to randomly rolled-for Iraq (which is already at POOR adversary.) Random die roll picked Turkey. Initial test POOR. Jihad has no effect. Did I play this right?
Sounds like no. Find closest applicable Good then Fair, not unmarked. If neither of your adjacent Good Allies are Shia-Mix, then keep going outward until you find a Good or Fair that is. (188.8.131.52 second bullet)
3) Flowchart priorities box for RECRUIT location, 2nd bullet: "Most cells + troops". If only cells in a country, but no troops, is that one given priority?
Yes. For example, 3 cells and 0 troops would be more "cells + troops" than would 1 cell and 1 troop.