That would be any betting game ever that is based on some predefined but variable stats.
Because thats the best simulation of that I can think off, have you tried sports videogames that involves drafting, to they work?...
The video game angle actually works really well. You can draft and then simulate seasons. It's a fun way to create a dynasty.
I do think this theme on a boardgame might be fun, but you would need a good system to simulate the season, or it would really feel just tacked on to a betting game like you describe.